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ネコカリシウイルス (FCV) を代替えとしたカキのノロウイルス浄化法に関する研究

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Title: ネコカリシウイルス (FCV) を代替えとしたカキのノロウイルス浄化法に関する研究
Other Titles: Elimination of Norovirus (NV) from Oyster Survival of Feline Calicivirus (FCV), a NV Surrogate, in Marine Environments and Under Inactivating Conditions
Authors: 笠井, 久会1 Browse this author →KAKEN DB
稲垣, 奈都子2 Browse this author
吉水, 守3 Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Authors(alt): Kasai, Hisae1
Inagaki, Natsuko2
Yoshimizu, Mamoru3
Issue Date: 2006
Publisher: 奥野製薬工業企画開発部
Journal Title: Top food techno focus
Journal Title(alt): トップフードテクノフォーカス
Volume: 10
Start Page: 1
End Page: 10
Abstract: Norovirus (NV) はヒトの腸管上皮で増殖するウイルスであり、近年糞口感染が問題となっている。しかし、二枚貝、特にカキがウイルスを濃縮し食中毒を引き起こすことから、水産分野でもその対策が急がれている。カキのNV浄化法の確立を目的として、培養できないNVの代替に、同じ科に属する feline calicivirus (FCV) を用い、環境水中およびカキ消化管中での生存性、紫外線、電解処理および高静圧処理による不活化効果について検討した。FCVの感染価は保持温度が高いほど速やかに減少したが、10℃以下では検出限界以下となるのに2~3週間を要した。さらにカキ消化管中でも感染価は速やかに減少し、抗FCV活性を有する細菌も分離され、消化管内細菌の影響が示唆された。しかし、FCVを99.9%以上不活化するには2.5×10^4μW•sec/cm2の紫外線照射を要した。電解処理では、3%NaCl溶液および海水でそれぞれ有効塩素濃度0.23および0.41mg/L・1分間の処理により感染価が99%以上減少し、ほぼ検出限界以下となった。高静圧処理では、カキの殻を外す条件である80MPa・40℃・5分間の処理で、FCVの感染価が1~2桁減少した。以上の結果から、カキのNV浄化には電解海水を用い、水温を20℃程度とし、高静水圧処理を組み合わせることが効果的であると考えられる。ただし、代替ウイルスによる試験であることから、今後はNVの感染性評価系の確立が急務と考える。
Oysters (Crassostrea gigas) harvested from major culture areas are sometimes contaminated with norovirus (NV). Elimination of NV from oysters is needed to reduce losses for oyster traders and farmers because it causes gastroenteritis in humans by a fecal-oral route. However, there is little information on survival of NV in marine environments and under inactivating conditions because determination of infectivity of NV by cell culture methods is impossible. Nevertheless, cell propagation of feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate for NV, is possible. Thus, in the present study, survival of FCV in aquatic environments and virucidal effects of UV irradiation, hypochlorite produced by electrolysis of seawater and high hydrostatic pressure were examined. FCV infectivity decreased quickly with temperature increase in seawater. Above 20℃, for a period of 1 week, infectivity decreased to below detection limits. FCV was more unstable in non-treated seawater than in sterilized seawater. Furthermore FCV is unstable in intestinal contents of oyster. Therefore, FCV was inactivated by antiviral substances produced by intestinal bacteria. FCV was inactivated (≧99.9%) by UV irradiation at closes of 2.5×10^4μW•sec/cm2. At the concentration of 0.23 and 0.41 mg/L of chlorine, produced by electrolysis of 3% NaCl solution and seawater reduced infectivity more than 99% in 1 min, respectively. Seawater electrolyzers have ability to treat large volumes of water and cost performance of this method is better than that of UV irradiation. Challenged with high hydrostatic pressure, FCV was almost completely inactivated at 200 MPa for 5 min. Oysters separated from their shells under a pressure of 80 MPa for 5 min at 40℃. Under these conditions, one to two-log. inactivation of FCV was observed. From these results, it is considered that electrolysis of seawater at 20℃ or above is a useful method for post harvest elimination of NV from oysters. High hydrostatic pressure is also effective for inactivation of NV.
Type: article
Appears in Collections:水産科学院・水産科学研究院 (Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences / Faculty of Fisheries Sciences) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 吉水 守

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