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GPS snow depth meter with geometry-free linear combinations of carrier phases

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タイトル: GPS snow depth meter with geometry-free linear combinations of carrier phases
著者: Ozeki, Masaru 著作を一覧する
Heki, Kosuke 著作を一覧する
キーワード: GPS
Snow depth
Linear combination
発行日: 2011年
出版者: Springer
誌名: Journal of Geodesy
巻: 86
号: 3
開始ページ: 209
終了ページ: 219
出版社 DOI: 10.1007/s00190-011-0511-x
抄録: Multipath in global positioning system (GPS) is the interference of the microwave signals directly from satellites and those reflected before reaching the antenna, typically by the ground. Because reflected signals cause positioning errors, GPS antennas are designed to reduce such interference. Recent studies show that multipath could be utilized to infer the properties of the ground around the antenna. Here, we report one such application, i.e. a fixed GPS station used as a snow depth meter. Because the satellite moves in the sky, the excess path length of reflected waves changes at rates dependent on the antenna height. This causes quasi-periodic variations of the amplitude and phase of the received signals. Accumulation of snow reduces effective antenna heights, and we can see it by analyzing multipath signatures. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) are often used to analyze multipath, but they are not always available in raw GPS data files. Here, we demonstrate that the geometry-free linear combination (L4), normally used to study the ionosphere, can also be used to analyze multipath signatures. We obtained snow depth time series at a GPS station in Hokkaido, Japan, from January to April in 2009 using L4 and SNR. Then, we compared their precisions. We also discuss mechanisms responsible for the possible underestimation of the snow depth by GPS. Finally, we investigate the possibility of inferring physical conditions of the snow surface using amplitudes of multipath signatures.
Rights: The original publication is available at
資料タイプ: article (author version)
出現コレクション:雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

提供者: 日置 幸介


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