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気候工学(ジオエンジニアリング)

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Title: 気候工学(ジオエンジニアリング)
Other Titles: Climate Geoengineering
Authors: 杉山, 昌広1 Browse this author
西岡, 純2 Browse this author
藤原, 正智3 Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Authors(alt): SUGIYAMA, Masahiro1
NISHIOKA, Jun2
FUJIWARA, Masatomo3
Keywords: 地球温暖化
気候変動
Issue Date: 31-Jul-2011
Publisher: 日本気象学会
Journal Title: 天気
Volume: 58
Issue: 7
Start Page: 577
End Page: 598
Abstract: 気候工学(ジオエンジニアリング)は「人為的な気候変動の対策として行う意図的な惑星環境の大規模改変」である.緩和策・適応策の代替にはならないが,温室効果ガス排出削減がなかなか進まない中,地球温暖化が危険な水準に達してしまうリスクを踏まえ,昨今,気候工学は欧米を中心に注目を浴びている.IPCCの第5次評価報告書でもレビューの対象となった.気候工学は,太陽放射管理(SRM)と二酸化炭素除去(CDR)の二つに大別される.SRMは太陽入射光を減らすことで気温を低下させる.CDRは二酸化炭素のシンクを促進するか工学的回収をして地球温暖化の原因を除去する.例えば海洋に鉄を散布し光合成を促進させる手法が提案されている.数ある気候工学で最も注目されているのはSRMの一つである成層圏へのエアロゾル注入である.火山噴火後の気温低下が示すように物理的な裏づけがあるが,降水の地理的パターンを変えるなど副作用も懸念されている.成層圏エアロゾル注入を主な対象とする気候工学モデル相互比較実験GeoMIPも立ち上がった.地球温暖化対策とはいえ,気候を直接改変する考えには,さまざまな社会的な課題がある.気候工学は一国が実施すると地球全体の気候に影響がでるため,何らかの国際枠組を必要とする.短期的には自然環境での実験についてのガイドラインが不可欠であり,国際的な議論がはじまっている.
Climate geoengineering is defined as "deliberate large-scale manipulation of the planetary environment to counteract anthropogenic climate change." The slow progress of greenhouse gas emissions reduction and a heightened recognition of the risk of dangerous global warming have led to increasing attention to this novel approach, although it cannot substitute for mitigation nor adaptation. The IPCC will review geoengineering as part of its fifth assessment report. There are two main categories of climate engineering options: carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which reduces the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide, a primary cause of global warming; and solar radiation management (SRM) that reduces the incoming solar radiation, thereby cooling the earth system. An example of the CDR approach is to add iron to the ocean to increase photosynthesis. Amongst many proposed approaches, the most promising is arguably the stratospheric aerosol injection, an SRM option. Its physics is similar to that of global cooling following volcanic eruptions. Research has shown that it would be accompanied with undesired effects such as changes in precipitation patterns. The GeoMIP, an international effort to climate model intercomparison on this approach, has recently been launched. Though intended as a cure of global warming, climate geoengineering confronts the human society with a number of problems. It would require an international framework since, if conducted unilaterally, it would affect the global climate as a whole. In the short run, guidelines for experiments in the natural environment would be crucial, on which international discussions just commenced.
Type: article
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2115/71619
Appears in Collections:環境科学院・地球環境科学研究院 (Graduate School of Environmental Science / Faculty of Environmental Earth Science) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 藤原 正智

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