Parasitic infections are common in stray dogs and accurate knowledge of parasite communities in dogs would provide insight into the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. In this study, we used Illumina sequencing technology to evaluate cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a marker for screening of parasitic infections in dogs. Plasma samples from 14 stray dogs captured in Bangladesh were used in the experiments. An average of 2.3 million reads was obtained for each sample. BLASTn analysis identified 150 reads with high similarity with parasites from 19 different genera. In particular, we detected sequences of Babesia spp. in five dogs; consistent with this, a previous study using conventional PCR showed that four of these dogs were positive for B. gibsoni. Several reads with similarity to Leishmania and filarial nematodes were also identified. These findings indicate that cfDNA in blood can be a potential screening marker for identifying parasite diversity in dogs.