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北海道大学文学研究院紀要 = Bulletin of the Faculty of Humanities and Human Sciences, Hokkaido University >
第167号 >

人々の脆弱性が社会にもたらすのは負担だけか : フランスの精神医療福祉従事者への質的調査を通した「ケアの互酬性」の再考

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Title: 人々の脆弱性が社会にもたらすのは負担だけか : フランスの精神医療福祉従事者への質的調査を通した「ケアの互酬性」の再考
Other Titles: Is Human Vulnerability Only a Burden on Societies? : Reframing the Reciprocity of Care through a Grounded Theory on Data Obtained from Professional Care Workers of People with Severe Mental Illness in France
Authors: 樋口, 麻里1 Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Authors(alt): Higuchi, Mari1
Keywords: 脆弱性
グラウンデッド・ セオリー・アプローチ
Ethics of care
People with mental illness
Grounded theory approach
Issue Date: 19-Jul-2022
Publisher: 北海道大学
Journal Title: 北海道大学文学研究院紀要
Journal Title(alt): Bulletin of the Faculty of Humanities and Human Sciences, Hokkaido University
Volume: 167
Start Page: 31(左)
End Page: 74(左)
Abstract: 身体的または精神的な脆弱性が相対的に大きく労働が困難な人々は,いかにして「社会に必要な成員」として承認されるのか。本稿は,これらの人々に対するケアの保証を主張するエヴァ・F・キテイのケアの倫理を足掛かりに,精神障がいのある人(以下,精神障がい者とする)にケアを提供する専門職スタッフの経験的データの分析から,この問いへの回答を試みる。ケアの倫理は,身体的または精神的な脆弱性を依存の発生源とみなし,脆弱性に留まる人には他者に「お返し」をする能力がないと捉える。そのため,労働が困難なほどの脆弱性をもつ依存者は,ケアの一方的な受け手と位置づけられる。他方,依存者からの「お返し」に焦点を当てた,実証的研究は十分に行われていない。そこで本稿では,労働が困難で様々な社会関係を喪失している精神障がい者へのケアを行う,フランスの専門職スタッフへのインタビュー調査とケア現場の参与観察調査のラウンデッド・セオリー・アプローチ(GTA)による分析から,ケアの実践を明らかにすることで,依存者から依存労働者に対する「お返し」の有無を考察する。分析の結果,スタッフは本稿で「ユマニテ」と名づける,社会の規範や制度を反省的に捉え直す哲学をケアのお返しとして,精神障がい者から受け取っていた。ユマニテを受け取ることで,スタッフは精神障がい者が社会的に排除される現状に疑問を持ち,社会の全体的な統合には脆弱性をもつ人々の社会的連帯への参加が不可欠であると認識していた。以上から,脆弱性をもつ人々が社会に必要な成員として承認される可能性として,ユマニテの社会への提供が示唆された。
How can people with relatively major physical and/or mental vulnerabilities, for whom it is difficult to accomplish tasks at home or in the labor market, be recognized as necessary members of society? This paper references and complements Eva F. Kittayʼs “ethics of care” in an attempt to answer this question. To achieve its aim, it analyzes qualitative data from interviews and examines field notes on French professional care workers of people with severe mental illnesses. The ethics of care considers physical and mental vulnerabilities as sources of social dependence and regards those who remain vulnerable as people who are unable to give back anything to others. Therefore, dependent individuals who are too incapacitated to work are positioned as one-sided recipients of care and are deemed to be persons that cannot engage as subjects with the solidarity of the reciprocity of care. Given the above conceptual context, this paper uses grounded theory approach to describe care practices and empirically examine whether dependent individuals can and do recompense their professional care workers. The author conducted interviews with French professional care workers for people with severe mental illness who find it difficult to work and have become bereft of varied social relationships. Participant observations were also performed. The study concluded that in return for their care, the professional care workers received a philosophy labeled for this paper as humanité from their people with mental illness. This payback enabled a reflective rethinking of societal norms and systems: in receiving humanité, professional care workers can question the social exclusion of people with mental illness. They can also recognize the overall integration of society necessitates the participation of people with vulnerabilities vis-à-vis social solidarity. This outcome suggests that those who remain dependent can potentially be recognized as necessary members of society through their capacity to recompense society with humanité. In this manner, this study contributes by reforming the reciprocity of care.
Type: bulletin (article)
Appears in Collections:北海道大学文学研究院紀要 = Bulletin of the Faculty of Humanities and Human Sciences, Hokkaido University > 第167号

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