北海道大学総合博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the Hokkaido University Museum;第6号(環オホーツク海地域における前近代交易網の発達と諸民族形成史の研究)

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Some results from the Posiet Grotto investigation in the context of Bohai studies

Nikitin, Yury G.

Permalink : http://hdl.handle.net/2115/52572
KEYWORDS : Bohai;cave site;Mohe culture;shell midden;Yankovskaya culture

Abstract

The multi-layer site Posiet Grotto located on Tyrol Cape near Posiet Port in Expedition Bay, Khasan District, Primorsky Krai, was utilized from 1,000 B.C. until the 16th century A.D. The earliest layer was formed approximately 5,000 years ago (Zaisanovka Culture: final Neolithic Age) as a seasonal camp. Several successive layers contained material from the Yankovskaya culture of the Early Iron Age. In the upper part of these layers were discovered two burial sites from the Yankovskaya culture. The next layer contained artifacts from the Mohe culture (approximately 6?7 A.D.). Numerous shards of hand-made earthen vessels, fishes, and animals bones constituted a majority of the findings in this layer. The whole collection was represented by 68 fragments of hand-made as well as wheel-made pottery, but the latter was the minority (less than 5%). The next epoch (8?11 A.D.) was represented by several horizons of the Bohai culture. Human bones belonging to this culture (4 young men under the age of 30 years) were found with dog bones. Undoubtedly, there was a connection between the Grotto ritual complex and that of Kraskino, an ancient fort and port town located nearby. The Grotto possibly served as a ceremonial place for people departing to or returning from long voyages. The next epoch (12?13 A.D.) was represented by several horizons with materials from the Jurchen culture (12?13 A.D.) and a small dwelling with a three-channel floor heating system called "kan" or “ondol” in local dialects. The post-Jurchen time is represented by several occupation horizons left by numerous seasonal camps of hunters, fishermen, and gatherers. The last of these horizons, according to archaeological data, is dated no earlier than the 16th century A.D.

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