北方人文研究 = Journal of the Center for Northern Humanities - 第6号 = No.6

アルタイ型言語における感情述語

風間, 伸次郎

Permalink :  http://hdl.handle.net/2115/52614
KEYWORDS : アルタイ型言語; 感情述語

Abstract

Emotional adjectives cannot be used with the 3rd person subject in Japanese. This phenomenon is called as “person restriction”. The aims of this paper are as follows: (1) To contrast the emotional expressions in several languages from the viewpoint of person restriction. (2) To reconsider the reason for the person restriction. The result of elicitation is as follows: Table 1: The restriction in person and related features in some Altaic-type languages / Japanese Korean Nanai Mongolian Kirghiz Turkish / Person restriction (Adj) ○ ○ × ○ × ○ / Person restriction (V) ○ ○ × ○ × ○ / Ambiguity ○ ○ × × × × / Use as exclamations ○ △ ○ × △ △ / The conclusions of this paper are as follows: [1] The person restriction cannot be thought as any areal feature nor genealogic feature. And from the typological viewpoint, the appearance of the person restriction is not consistent in the languages of the similar type (in this case, Altaic-type). [2] The emotional predicates implicate some judgement of the speaker (i.e. 1st person). Therefore a kind of evidential markers is necessary to use an emotional predicate with a 3rd person subject. [3] The person restriction is observed not only in the emotional adjectives but also in the emotional verbs. Therefore the relation between the difference in word classes and the person restriction is not acceptable. [4] The ambiguous expressions of the emotional predicates (such as ‘kowai hito’ in Japanese) are not observed consistently in the languages which has the person restriction. [5] The emotional predicates are used frequently in the exclamational sentences in Japanese, but in the other languages not used so frequently as in Japanese.


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