アイヌ・先住民研究 = Aynu Teetawanoankur Kanpinuye;第1号

FONT SIZE:  S M L

A fossilized personal article in Atayal : With a reconstruction of the Proto-Atayalic patronymic system

Ochiai, Izumi

Permalink : http://hdl.handle.net/2115/80890
JaLCDOI : 10.14943/97164
KEYWORDS : Atayal;Seediq;patronymic system;personal article;personal pronoun;アタヤル語;セデック語;父子連名制;人称標識;再建

Abstract

In Atayalic languages (Austronesian), including Atayal and Seediq, one’s full name is expressed by a patronymic system. For example, Kumu Watan literally means “Kumu, the child (daughter) of Watan.” This paper reconstructs the patronymic system of the Atayalic languages by dissecting personal names into a root and attached elements such as a fossilized personal article y- and a possessive marker na. Regarding the fossilized personal article, y-initial personal names and kin terms in Atayal (e.g., Yumin [a male name], and yama “son-in-law”) are compared with those in Seediq, which lack the initial y (e.g., Umin [a male name], ama “son-in-law”). The initial y in Atayal derives from the personal article i only when the root begins with the back vowels, a or u, and the attached i became y by resyllabification. This initial y- is referred to as a “fossilized personal article” in this paper. That marker seems to have lost its function as the personal article since these y-initial personal names or kin terms can further be preceded by an element derived from the personal article i, i.e., i (a nominative case marker), ni (a genitive case marker), and ki (a coordinator). One example is k-i Y-umin “with Yumin.” There is other evidence that the fossilized personal article y- is dropped under certain conditions, such as direct address and the attachment of the possessive marker na, and the prefixation of ka- “late.” In addition, this paper examines extensive data of a patronymic system recorded in Atayalic genealogies (Utsushikawa et al. 1935) in order to investigate the actual occurrences of the fossilized personal article and the possessive marker. Based on these analyses, the patronymic system is reconstructed in Proto-Atayalic.
アタヤル語(アタヤル語群)に見られる父子連名制は、例えば Kumu Watan「Watanの子、Kumu」と表現するが、中には Yawi(男性の名)が親の名として用いられると Nawi に変化するという特殊な変化を伴う人名があり、 Yang( 1957)は母音から始まる人名には人称標識 i が語頭に付着すると分析した(i-awi > y-awi)。親の名は母音から始まる人名に所有標識 na- が付いている(na-awi > naawi > nawi)。本稿はこの分析を補足し発展させる。まず、この y はアタヤル語において語根が母音 a と u で始まる場合に付着する。次にセデック語(アタヤル語群祖語)の人名では語頭の y が見られないことを述べる。アタヤル語には人称標識 i から派生された機能語に接続詞 ki があり、ki Yumin「ユミンと」などと表現するが、ki の後に y から始まる人名が現れるため、y- は人称機能を失い化石化しているといえる(化石化した人称標識 y- はある条件下で脱落する)。本稿はさらにアタヤル語群の家系図中の人名データを調べ y- や na の現れ方をまとめた。以上の分析を基にアタヤル語群祖語における父子連名制を新たな試みとして再建した。

FULL TEXT:PDF