アイヌ・先住民研究 = Aynu Teetawanoankur Kanpinuye;第1号

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先住民考古学の成立背景と課題 : アメリカ合衆国における事例考察

加藤, 博文

Permalink : http://hdl.handle.net/2115/80891
JaLCDOI : 10.14943/97170
KEYWORDS : 先住民考古学;アメリカ合衆国;歴史文化遺産;返還・再埋葬

Abstract

先住民考古学“Indigenous archaeology“ は、北米やオセアニア、北欧を中心に先住民族と考古遺産をめぐる諸問題に注視し、多様な議論を展開させている。その課題は先住民族の権利と深く関わることも指摘されているところである。本論では先住民考古学が考古学の一領域としてある程度定着しているアメリカ合衆国を事例として取上げ、先住民考古学の成立の歴史的過程と文化遺産をめぐる法制度の変遷との関係を考察した。またアメリカ合衆国における先住民考古学の整理基盤を確認することで、そこで提起される課題が、必ずしもアメリカ合衆国に固有のものではなく、日本を含む他の先住民族を抱える諸国の考古学においても共有可能なものであることを指摘した。
The overarching goal of Indigenous Archaeology is one of the applied archaeological information and material heritage from the perspective of Indigenous peoples and descendant communities. Indigenous Archaeology was originally developed in North America and Oceania, and emerged from 1960's as a part of wilder movement to restore rights to Indigenous peoples. The driving forces for the establishment of Indigenous Archaeology were efforts to overcome the influence and legacy of imperialism, racism, and colonialism, which were deeply rooted in traditional cultural historical archaeology, and to some extent, in efforts to create processual New Archaeology. In the intervening decades, much progress has been made. Archaeologists working in the 21st century now routinely discusses cultural heritage management, the politics of interpretation, ethical stewardship, indigeneity, and the decolonization of archaeological practices. As a result of these changing circumstances, Indigenous Archaeology has now become a central theme in global archaeological theory and practice. The purpose of this paper is to first reflect on the historical background of Indigenous Archaeology in the English-speaking countries, and to highlight the common issues and developments that unite this discipline. For example, the history of archaeology and Indigenous peoples in the United States illustrates that the process of establishing a conservation system for Indigenous heritage was only possible after that the movement for restoration of basic Indigenous rights has been successful. In contrast, in East Asia, including Japan, the relationship between the recognition of Indigenous rights and the establishment of Indigenous Archaeology is less well still understood, despite the fact that the local situation has many similarities with other parts of the world. This paper highlights the need to find common solutions to these universal issues, rather than to present them as specific problems that are unique to practical countries. Highlighting the universal nature of these issues also emphasis their urgency, and that they need to be resolved within the current generation. Finally, the paper also argues that Indigenous cultures persist and also change, and so should not be stereotyped. The capacity to interpret and the utilize heritage and archaeological information as a part of a living cultural tradition is also an important rights and properties for Indigenous communities. In conclusion, finding effective ways to ensure deeper Indigenous participation in the full process of heritage research, management and conservation is an urgent requirement.

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