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会話形式の文章とメディア・コミュニケーション : キャラクターによるセリフのやりとりの展開を中心に

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Title: 会話形式の文章とメディア・コミュニケーション : キャラクターによるセリフのやりとりの展開を中心に
Other Titles: Texts Written in Conversational Form and Media Communication : The Manner of Exchanges of Lines by Characters
Authors: 斉藤, 千佳1 Browse this author
Authors(alt): SAITO, Chika1
Keywords: 会話形式
文章
コミュニケーション
キャラクタ
談話分析
Issue Date: 25-Mar-2010
Abstract: 本稿の目的は、一般に「会話形式」と呼ばれる形式で書かれた文章を質的に分析し、それが書き手と読み手の間にどのようなコミュニケーションを成立させているのかを考察することにある。会話形式の文章は、新聞・雑誌等で日常的に見られるものであるにも関わらず、これまで体系的な研究は行われてこなかった。そこで第1章ではまず、本稿で扱う会話形式の文章とはどのようなテクストを指すかという点を明確にする。その上で、第2章では、文章形式全般についての研究や、会話形式で書かれたテクストを対象とする研究、フィクションの会話に関する研究を概観することを通して、本稿における研究方針を提起する。第3章ではこの方針に沿い、実際にメディアで公開された会話形式の読み物を対象として、架空の人物たちによるセリフのやりとりを分析する。データは、登場人物の役割関係を基に、予め次の三群に分類している。すなわち、Ⅰ群:質問者(Q)と回答者(A)による会話から成るテクスト、Ⅱ群:教える人(T)と教わる人(S)の会話から成るテクスト、Ⅲ群:より複雑な対立関係を持つ人々(P1,P2,…)の会話から成るテクスト、である。この三つの群それぞれについて、セリフのやりとりの展開や、登場人物へのキャラクタの配分に見られる傾向を、例を挙げながら考察していく。そこでは、作者の内なる対話における視点の対立が複数の語り手に投影され、キャラクタの適用により可視化されていると考えられること、また作者と読者が登場人物同士による会話の「場」を共有することで、テクストを媒介とする仮想的な交話的コミュニケーションを行っている可能性があることを指摘する。第4章では以上の分析結果をまとめ、さらに会話形式の文章の研究が現代において持つ意義と今後の課題について触れる。
These days we see many types of writings on the media such as newspapers, magazines, books, or Internet sites. This paper deals with one specific type of text: texts written in “conversational form.” We sometimes come across a column or an article in a newspaper or a magazine which is written as a dialogue form, instead of using an ordinary prose statement. In such a text, we find some characters who talk to each other. The text usually consists of the characters’ names and their lines with few or no narrative part. Why are they written in such a form? We may find an answer to this question by analyzing those texts published actually on the media and focusing on the communications between writers and readers. There is little research available on conversational form itself. However, we can get some suggestion from observation of drama discourse, illustrative sentences in textbooks of foreign language, interviews in magazines and books, or philosophical texts like the Dialogues of Plato. For example, a conversation between characters within a text is not a copy of natural conversation but have some unique features as an artifact (Kumagai 2003). So it seems that they have some similarity to conversation in fiction. It is characterized by “double structure of communication,” which is assumed to consist of two levels of communication: “the micro-communication” between the characters, and “the macro-communication” between the writer and readers (Yamaguchi 1998, 2007). Through analyzing the manner of exchanges of lines by characters, therefore, we can know something about the nature of the macro-communication that influences it. The data for this study are 14 texts which I have obtained in articles in newspapers, magazines, books, or a leaflet. These are classified into three groups according to what kinds of roles are played by characters in the micro-communication: Questioner and Answerer, Teacher and Student, or any other case. Then we see how characters exchange their lines in each group. Texts of the first group are composed of simple repetition of question and answer, while the second group has the story in which characters cancel their temporary opposition and reach an agreement in the end. In the latter case, characters seem to talk to each other as if there were a sort of “the preestablished harmony.” In contrast with this, it seems that each of the characters in the third group behaves in his/her own way and sometimes insert a small talk into the conversation. Furthermore, the personalities set on the characters are also seems to differ between the three groups. Considering these facts, the communication in conversational form is unique in some respects. For a writer, the conversation by characters seems to be a result of deformation of his/her latent, internal dialogue. So the characters can be seen as the writer’s alter egos. They shoulder a burden of responsibility for their speeches in place of the writer and put him/her into the background. Then readers can think themselves as the auditors of the characters’ relaxed chat, but not as the addressees spoken to. If so, there is possibility that some texts in conversational form could be characterized as not only transmission of information but also “the phatic communion” between the writer and readers in which they are enjoying the same communication space together.
Conffering University: 北海道大学
Degree Level: 修士
Degree Discipline: 国際広報メディア
Type: theses (master)
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2115/43829
Appears in Collections:学位論文 (Theses) > 修士 (国際広報メディア)

Submitter: 斉藤 千佳

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