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Inducible defenses in prey intensify predator cannibalism

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Title: Inducible defenses in prey intensify predator cannibalism
Authors: Kishida, Osamu Browse this author
Trussell, Geoffrey C. Browse this author
Nishimura, Kinya Browse this author
Ohgushi, Takayuki Browse this author
Keywords: behavior
food webs
Hynobius retardatus (Dunn)
inducible defense
predation risk
Rana pirica (Matsui)
trait-mediated indirect effects
trophic cascade
Issue Date: Nov-2009
Publisher: Ecological Society of America
Journal Title: Ecology
Volume: 90
Issue: 11
Start Page: 3150
End Page: 3158
Publisher DOI: 10.1890/08-2158.1
Abstract: Trophic cascades are often a potent force in ecological communities, but abiotic and biotic heterogeneity can diffuse their influence. For example, inducible defenses in many species create variation in prey edibility, and size-structured interactions, such as cannibalism, can shift predator diets away from heterospecific prey. Although both factors diffuse cascade strength by adding heterogeneity to trophic interactions, the consequences of their interaction remain poorly understood. We show that inducible defenses in tadpole prey greatly intensify cannibalism in predatory larval salamanders. The likelihood of cannibalism was also strongly influenced by asymmetries in salamander size that appear to be most important in the presence of defended prey. Hence, variation in prey edibility and the size structure of the predator may synergistically affect predator--prey population dynamics by reducing prey mortality and increasing predator mortality via cannibalism. We also suggest that the indirect effects of prey defenses may shape the evolution of predator traits that determine diet breadth and how trophic dynamics unfold in natural systems.
Type: article
Appears in Collections:水産科学院・水産科学研究院 (Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences / Faculty of Fisheries Sciences) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 西村 欣也

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