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対照言語学的観点からみた相対テンスについて ： 日本語及びアルタイ諸言語における形動詞を用いた従属節の分析
|Title: ||対照言語学的観点からみた相対テンスについて ： 日本語及びアルタイ諸言語における形動詞を用いた従属節の分析|
|Other Titles: ||Relative Tense from a Contrastive Linguistics Viewpoint ： An Analysis of Subordinate Clauses Using Participles in Japanese and Altaic Languages|
|Authors: ||風間, 伸次郎1 Browse this author →KAKEN DB|
|Authors(alt): ||KAZAMA, Shinjiro1|
|Issue Date: ||25-Mar-2013|
|Journal Title: ||北方言語研究|
|Start Page: ||175|
|End Page: ||199|
|Abstract: ||In Japanese both the finite form and the adnominal form of verbs are realized in the
same way. The two finite forms, nonpast: -(r)u and past: -(i)ta, can also be used to
express time in subordinate clauses.
However in subordinate clauses these two forms do not exhibit tense based on the
time of a utterance (absolute tense), but rather they show the temporal relationship
of the subordinate clause relative to the main clause(relative tense).
(1)arosia=ni ik-u toki=ni boosi=o kat-ta.
Russia=DAT go-ANF.NONPST time=DAT hat=ACC buy-FNT.PST
“When I went to Russia, I bought a hat (beforehand).”
［Sentence as whole is past, subordinate clause is nonpast］
(1)b rosia=ni it-tatoki=ni boosi=o kat-ta.
Russia=DAT go-ANF.PST time=DAT hat=ACC buy-FNT.PST
“When I went to Russia, I bought a hat (after arriving).”
［Sentence as whole is past, subordinate clause is past］
(2)a namae=o kak-u kami=o mot-te ki-te kudasai.
name=ACC write=ANF.NONPST paper=ACC take-ADVF come-ADVF please
“Please bring the piece of paper on which you willwrite your name.”
［Sentence as whole is future, adnominal clause isnonpast］
(2)b namae=o ka-ita kami=o mot-te ki-te kudasai.
“Please bring the piece of paper with your name written on it.”
［Sentence as whole is future, adnominal clause is past］
As seen above, irrespective of the fact that the event occurredin the past, the
-(r)u(nonpast) appears in the subordinate clause ((1)a). Also, irrespective of the fact
that the event has yet to occur, we see the -(i)ta(past) appearing in the subordinate
In Altaic languages, the participle has a wide range offunction: in addition to
functioning both nominally and adnominally,it may also function as a sentence final
predicate. When used nominally, participles take case(such as dative)directly and
can be used to create adverbial phrases. Thus, in Altaic languages also, it may be
possible to create expressions of relative tensesimilar to that of Japanese.
So, what is the extent of similarity among Altaic-type languages (including
Japanese) in this respect?
Results of investigation are summarized in the following table.
Table 1：Comparison of tense of subordinate clauses
(R: Relative tense, A: Absolute tense, N: Neutralized)
Aspect Form Jap. Turk. Khalkha Nanai ex.
Temporal C. Momentary nonpst in pst R R N R 
Durative pst in pst A R N A / N 
Causal C. Durative nonpst/pst in pst A / N A A A / N 
Adnominal C. pst in nonpst R (R) A (R) 
(In the following sentences, English is a kind of meta-language.)
 When I go to Russia, I bought a hat.
 When I read/was reading the newspaper, I found a picture of my friend.
 X is/was sleeping during the lesson, so I woke him/her up.
 Please bring the piece of paper with your name written on it.
In this paper, I would like to maintain the following points:
(A) The realization of the relative tense shows asymmetry. The nonpast (or
imperfect or like that) verb form in the subordinate clause tends to occur in the past
sentence more often, but the past form in the present or future sentence harder to occur.
(B)The relative tense is realized differently by the kind of adverbial clauses; such as,
“when” clause (temporal (simultaneous) clause), “because” clause (causal clause),
“though” clause (adversative clause) and “if” clause (conditional clause).
The relative tense is realized mostly in the simultaneous clause, because the
temporal relationship (before or after) is important in this type of sentence. But the
meaning of “after” clause and “when” clause are more often realized by converbs in
the Altaic-type languages. On the other hand, the relative tense tend not to be
realized in causal or adversative clause, because in these clauses state truths.
(C)The relative tense is realized differently along the aspect of the verbs of the
subordinate clause(and that of the main clause). The difference between
momentary action and durative action influences the realization of the relative tense.
The relative tense is realized more in the case of momentary verbs. On the other
hand the tense opposition tends to be neutralized in the case of durative verbs.
(D)The relative tense occurs more in the Altaic-type languages than the languages
of other types. Because in the Altaic-type languages converbs (or adverbial forms or
like that) are often used and the tense of the sentence-final predicates have the
scope over the whole sentence. On the other hand the predicate in the middle of a
sentence tends to express only the temporal (before or after) relationship to the
tense of the sentense-final predicate.
(E) Furthermore, the realization of the relative tense differs among the Altaic-type languages.|
|Type: ||bulletin (article)|
|Appears in Collections:||北方言語研究 = Northern Language Studies > 第3号|