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Empirical Relationships for Estimating Liquid Water Fraction of Melting Snowflakes

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Title: Empirical Relationships for Estimating Liquid Water Fraction of Melting Snowflakes
Authors: Misumi, Ryohei Browse this author
Motoyoshi, Hiroki Browse this author
Yamaguchi, Satoru Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Nakai, Sento Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Ishizaka, Masaaki Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Fujiyoshi, Yasushi Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Issue Date: Oct-2014
Publisher: American Meteorological Society
Journal Title: Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
Volume: 53
Issue: 10
Start Page: 2232
End Page: 2245
Publisher DOI: 10.1175/JAMC-D-13-0169.1
Abstract: The liquid water fraction of individual snowflakes f is an important parameter when calculating the radar reflectivity of a melting layer. A ground-based observation of fat Nagaoka, Japan, was conducted by using dye-treated filter papers that were kept at a temperature of 0 degrees C. From the results of these measurements, which consisted of 6179 particles taken with 44 sheets of filter paper, two empirical relationships are proposed. The first is a relationship between the ratio of liquid water flux to total precipitation intensity (F-L; taking values from 0 to 1) and meteorological surface data. The second is a relationship to estimate fusing the melted diameter of a snowflake, median mass diameter, and F-L. It was determined that the root-mean-square errors for estimating F-L and f by using these relationships were 0.160 and 0.144, respectively. It was also found that the ratio of raindrop flux to the total precipitation intensity F-R was always below 0.1 when F-L was less than 0.6 but increased rapidly when F-L exceeded 0.8.
Rights: © Copyright 2014 American Meteorological Society (AMS). Permission to use figures, tables, and brief excerpts from this work in scientific and educational works is hereby granted provided that the source is acknowledged. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 USC §108, as revised by P.L. 94-553) does not require the AMS’s permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a web site or in a searchable database, or other uses of this material, except as exempted by the above statement, requires written permission or a license from the AMS. Additional details are provided in the AMS Copyright Policy, available on the AMS Web site located at ( or from the AMS at 617-227-2425 or
Type: article
Appears in Collections:低温科学研究所 (Institute of Low Temperature Science) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 藤吉 康志

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