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Levels, potential sources and human health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Kumasi, Ghana

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Title: Levels, potential sources and human health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Kumasi, Ghana
Authors: Bortey-Sam, Nesta Browse this author
Ikenaka, Yoshinori Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Akoto, Osei Browse this author
Nakayama, Shouta M. M. Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Yohannes, Yared Beyene Browse this author
Baidoo, Elvis Browse this author
Mizukawa, Hazuki Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Ishizuka, Mayumi Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Keywords: Airborne particulate
BaP toxic equivalent
Incremental lifetime cancer risk
Chemical mass balance
Issue Date: Jul-2015
Publisher: Springer
Journal Title: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume: 22
Issue: 13
Start Page: 9658
End Page: 9667
Publisher DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-4022-1
PMID: 25616380
Abstract: Airborne particulate samples were collected on quartz filters to determine the concentrations, sources and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air in Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 32 air samples were collected in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) campus (pristine site) and city centre (CC). Samples were extracted with 1:2 v/v acetone:hexane mixture prior to GC-MS analyses. The sum of concentrations of 17 PAHs in air ranged from 0.51 to 16 (KNUST) and 19-38 ng/m3 (CC). The concentration of benzo[a]pyrene, BaP, ranged from below detection limit to 0.08 ng/m3 (KNUST) and 1.6 to 5.6 ng/m3 (CC). Chemical mass balance model showed that PAHs in air in Kumasi were mainly from fuel combustion. The total BaP equivalent concentration (BaPeq) in CC was 18 times higher compared to KNUST; based on the European Legislation and Swedish and UK Standards for BaP in air, CC could be classified as highly polluted. Estimated carcinogenicity of PAHs in terms of BaPeq indicated that BaP was the principal PAH contributor in CC (70 %). Health risk to adults and children associated with PAH inhalation was assessed by taking into account the lifetime average daily dose and corresponding incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR was within the acceptable range (10-6 to 10-4), indicating low health risk to residents.
Rights: The final publication is available at Springer via
Type: article (author version)
Appears in Collections:獣医学院・獣医学研究院 (Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine / Faculty of Veterinary Medicine) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 石塚 真由美

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