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Points to consider : efficacy and safety evaluations in the clinical development of ultra-orphan drugs

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Title: Points to consider : efficacy and safety evaluations in the clinical development of ultra-orphan drugs
Authors: Maeda, Kojiro Browse this author
Kaneko, Masayuki Browse this author
Narukawa, Mamoru Browse this author
Arato, Teruyo Browse this author
Keywords: Ultra-orphan drugs
Review reports
Clinical trials
Guidance
Issue Date: 23-Aug-2017
Publisher: BioMed Central
Journal Title: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Volume: 12
Start Page: 143
Publisher DOI: 10.1186/s13023-017-0690-5
Abstract: Background: The unmet medical needs of individuals with very rare diseases are high. The clinical trial designs and evaluation methods used for 'regular' drugs are not applicable in the clinical development of ultra-orphan drugs (<1000 patients) in many cases. In order to improve the clinical development of ultra-orphan drugs, we examined several points regarding the efficient evaluations of drug efficacy and safety that could be conducted even with very small sample sizes, based on the review reports of orphan drugs approved in Japan. Results: The clinical data packages of 43 ultra-orphan drugs approved in Japan from January 2001 to December 2014 were investigated. Japanese clinical trial data were not included in the clinical data package for eight ultra-orphan drugs, and non-Japanese clinical trial data were included for six of these eight drug. Japanese supportive data that included retrospective studies, published literature, clinical research and Japanese survey results were clinical data package attachments in 22 of the 43 ultra-orphan drugs. Multinational trials were conducted for three ultra-orphan drugs. More than two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted for only 11 of the 43 ultra-orphan drugs. The smaller the number of patients, the greater the proportion of forced titration and optional titration trials were conducted. Extension trials were carried out for enzyme preparations and monoclonal antibodies with high ratio. Post-marketing surveillance of all patients was required in 36 of the 43 ultra-orphan drugs. For ultra-orphan drugs, clinical endpoints were used as the primary efficacy endpoint of the pivotal trial only for two drugs. The control groups in RCTs were classified as follows: placebo groups different dosage groups, and active controls groups. Sample sizes have been determined on the basis of feasibility for some ultra-orphan drugs. We provide "Draft Guidance on the Clinical Development of Ultra-Orphan Drugs" based on this research. Conclusions: The development of ultra-orphan drugs requires various arrangements regarding evidence collection, data sources and the clinical trial design. We expect that this draft guidance is useful for ultra-orphan drugs developments in future.
Rights: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Type: article
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2115/67379
Appears in Collections:北海道大学病院 (Hokkaido University Hospital) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 荒戸 照世

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