HUSCAP logo Hokkaido Univ. logo

Hokkaido University Collection of Scholarly and Academic Papers >
Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education : GI-CoRE >
Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc >

The Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in "Nonendemic" Regions of Zambia (1989-2015) : Implications for Disease Prevention and Control.

Creative Commons License

Files in This Item:
viruses-09-00236.pdf1.5 MBPDFView/Open
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

Title: The Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in "Nonendemic" Regions of Zambia (1989-2015) : Implications for Disease Prevention and Control.
Authors: Simulundu, Edgar Browse this author
Lubaba, Caesar H Browse this author
van Heerden, Juanita Browse this author
Kajihara, Masahiro Browse this author
Mataa, Liywalii Browse this author
Chambaro, Herman Moses Browse this author
Sinkala, Yona Browse this author
Munjita, Samuel Munalula Browse this author
Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba Browse this author
Nalubamba, King Shimumbo Browse this author
Samui, Kenny Browse this author
Pandey, Girja Shanker Browse this author
Takada, Ayato Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Mweene, Aaron S Browse this author
Keywords: Asfarviridae
African swine fever
domestic pigs
phylogenetic analysis
molecular epidemiology
Issue Date: 23-Aug-2017
Publisher: MDPI
Journal Title: Viruses
Volume: 9
Issue: 9
Start Page: 236
Publisher DOI: 10.3390/v9090236
Abstract: African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral hemorrhagic disease of swine. In Zambia, ASF was first reported in 1912 in Eastern Province and is currently believed to be endemic in that province only. Strict quarantine measures implemented at the Luangwa River Bridge, the only surface outlet from Eastern Province, appeared to be successful in restricting the disease. However, in 1989, an outbreak occurred for the first time outside the endemic province. Sporadic outbreaks have since occurred almost throughout the country. These events have brought into acute focus our limited understanding of the epidemiology of ASF in Zambia. Here, we review the epidemiology of the disease in areas considered nonendemic from 1989 to 2015. Comprehensive sequence analysis conducted on genetic data of ASF viruses (ASFVs) detected in domestic pigs revealed that p72 genotypes I, II, VIII and XIV have been involved in causing ASF outbreaks in swine during the study period. With the exception of the 1989 outbreak, we found no concrete evidence of dissemination of ASFVs from Eastern Province to other parts of the country. Our analyses revealed a complex epidemiology of the disease with a possibility of sylvatic cycle involvement. Trade and/or movement of pigs and their products, both within and across international borders, appear to have been the major factor in ASFV dissemination. Since ASFVs with the potential to cause countrywide and possibly regional outbreaks, could emerge from "nonendemic regions", the current ASF control policy in Zambia requires a dramatic shift to ensure a more sustainable pig industry.
Rights: © 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (
Type: article
Appears in Collections:国際連携研究教育局 : GI-CoRE (Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education : GI-CoRE) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 高田 礼人

Export metadata:

OAI-PMH ( junii2 , jpcoar )

MathJax is now OFF:


Feedback - Hokkaido University