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Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Work Environment Factors among Dairy Farmers in Japan

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Title: Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Work Environment Factors among Dairy Farmers in Japan
Authors: Sato, Miho Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Kato, Hiromi Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Noguchi, Makiko Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Ono, Hiroshi Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Kobayashi, Kuniyuki Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Keywords: dairy farmers
depressive symptoms
work environment factors
gender differences
Issue Date: 9-Apr-2020
Publisher: MDPI
Journal Title: International journal of environmental research and public health
Volume: 17
Issue: 7
Start Page: 2569
Publisher DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17072569
Abstract: Dairy farmers are more likely than nonfarmers to experience high demands and are at risk of mental health problems. However, there is scarce evidence on the current state of psychological health and related factors among dairy farmers, and the knowledge of potential gender differences is limited. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and its association with work environment characteristics and to identify gender differences. Data were collected from 273 dairy farmer participants (169 males and 104 females) in Japan. Females were more likely to be depressed, and young and middle-aged women appeared to be at risk of depression. For both genders, a demanding work environment was related to depression. There were some gender differences; for example, worries about the harmful effects of pesticides on health and the balancing of family roles and work roles were related to depression in men, while worries about one's financial situation and the health status of livestock were associated with depression in women. Females benefited from support through direct interaction, while males benefited from involvement in social activities. These findings will contribute to the development of a gender-specific approach to promote psychological health in the dairy farming community.
Rights: © 2020 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (
Type: article
Appears in Collections:保健科学院・保健科学研究院 (Graduate School of Health Sciences / Faculty of Health Sciences) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

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