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Lead, Zinc and Cadmium Accumulation, and Associated Health Risks, in Maize Grown near the Kabwe Mine in Zambia in Response to Organic and Inorganic Soil Amendments

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Title: Lead, Zinc and Cadmium Accumulation, and Associated Health Risks, in Maize Grown near the Kabwe Mine in Zambia in Response to Organic and Inorganic Soil Amendments
Authors: Mwilola, Patricia N. Browse this author
Mukumbuta, Ikabongo Browse this author
Shitumbanuma, Victor Browse this author
Chishala, Benson H. Browse this author
Uchida, Yoshitaka Browse this author
Nakata, Hokuto Browse this author
Nakayama, Shouta Browse this author
Ishizuka, Mayumi Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Keywords: legacy mining
heavy metals
soil amendments
maize
health risks
Issue Date: Dec-2020
Publisher: MDPI
Journal Title: International journal of environmental research and public health
Volume: 17
Issue: 23
Start Page: 9038
Publisher DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17239038
Abstract: Health risks due to heavy metal (HM) contamination is of global concern. Despite concerns of high levels of HMs in soils near Kabwe mine in Zambia, edible crop production is common, posing potential health risks. This study assessed the potential of chicken manure (CM), triple superphosphate (TSP) and a blended fertilizer (BF; consisting of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium (NPK) fertilizer and composted chicken manure) to reduce lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in soils and their accumulation in maize grown near the Kabwe mine. Maize was grown to maturity and its HM concentrations and associated health risk indices were calculated. All soil amendments decreased bioavailable soil Pb concentrations by 29-36%, but only CM decreased Zn, while the amendments increased or had no effect on Cd concentrations compared to the control. The amendments reduced Pb (>25%) and Zn concentrations (>18%) in the maize stover and grain. However, Cd concentrations in maize grain increased in the BF and TSP treatments. Bioaccumulation factors showed that Cd had the highest mobility from the soil into maize stover and grain, indicating the need for greater attention on Cd in Kabwe despite its apparently lower soil concentration compared to Pb and Zn. The hazard quotients for Pb and Cd were much greater than one, indicating a high risk of possible exposure to toxic levels by people consuming maize grain grown in this area. This study demonstrated the significant potential of manure and phosphate-based amendments to reduce Pb and Zn, and to some extent Cd, uptake in maize grain and consequently reduce associated health risks.
Rights: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Type: article
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2115/80470
Appears in Collections:獣医学院・獣医学研究院 (Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine / Faculty of Veterinary Medicine) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

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