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The Plasticity and Selectivity of the Inhibitory Template for Visual Marking [an abstract of entire text]

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Title: The Plasticity and Selectivity of the Inhibitory Template for Visual Marking [an abstract of entire text]
Other Titles: 視覚的印付けにおける抑制テンプレートの可塑性と選択性に関する研究 [全文の要約]
Authors: 山内, 健司 Browse this author
Issue Date: 25-Mar-2021
Publisher: Hokkaido University
Abstract: We usually get a lot of visual information visually, which we can efficiently process owing to attention. Visual attention has been examined by using visual search tasks in which observers are required to detect a target among distractors and the response times and accuracy are measured. Various types of visual search tasks have indicated various characteristics of our visual attentional mechanisms. One of those characteristics is to ignore old and irrelevant information in a top down fashion, called visual marking. Visual marking is shown in a preview search task consisting of a display of a subset of distractors (i.e., old items) followed by an additional display containing the remaining distractors and a target (i.e., new items). During the preview period, an inhibitory template is formed under limited attentional resources, resulting in the prioritization of the new items and the inhibition of the old items. The characteristics of the inhibitory template have been shown by combining preview search tasks with other events or tasks. Many previous studies have demonstrated the determinants that impair the inhibitory templates resulting in inefficient visual searches. Regarding these findings, there are two concerns. First, is there any possibility that the inhibitory template can be resistant to degradation from visual disturbance and updated to increase search efficiency? Second, the events or tasks combined with a preview search task in the previous studies were unrelated to the target detection. Combining the events or tasks directly related to the target detection may have any positive effects on preview search performances. The purpose of this thesis is, through tackling these two issues, to extend to the understanding of visual marking and attentional control under limited attentional resources. In Chapter 2, a new plasticity of the inhibitory template was examined. When a singleton distractor that should be actively suppressed appeared among new items, the suppression of the singleton was apparently integrated into the inhibitory template for old items, suggesting that the inhibitory template can be updated. In Chapter 3, a cueing task where the cueing can be directly related to the target detection was combined. Regarding endogenous spatial cueing, visual marking did not function concurrently with it. Either of the two effects should work alternately; observers would select whether they used the inhibitory template or not every trial. On the other hand, regarding exogenous spatial cueing, visual marking could function concurrently with it; observers would use the inhibitory template without selection. As far as the combined paradigm is directly related to the target detection, bottom up attentional capture can be added to visual marking effects without selection, while top down control cannot be added to visual marking effect by the selection of whether which top down effect would be adopted. The findings from these experiments are discussed in relation to theories of a preview search task and expanded to attentional control under limited attentional resources.
Description: この博士論文全文の閲覧方法については、以下のサイトをご参照ください。
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Conffering University: 北海道大学
Degree Report Number: 甲第14560号
Degree Level: 博士
Degree Discipline: 人間科学
Examination Committee Members: (主査) 教授 河原 純一郎, 教授 川端 康弘, 教授 結城 雅樹, 准教授 大杉 尚之(山形大学・人文社会科学部)
Degree Affiliation: 文学院(人間科学専攻)
Type: theses (doctoral - abstract of entire text)
Appears in Collections:課程博士 (Doctorate by way of Advanced Course) > 文学院(Graduate School of Humanities and Human Sciences)
学位論文 (Theses) > 博士 (人間科学)

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