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北米国境管理ガバナンスの形成 : 「北米の安全と繁栄のためのパートナーシップ (SPP)」の成立と挫折を手がかりとして

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Title: 北米国境管理ガバナンスの形成 : 「北米の安全と繁栄のためのパートナーシップ (SPP)」の成立と挫折を手がかりとして
Other Titles: Border Security Governance in North America: A Clue to the Formation and Failure of “Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP)”
Authors: 川久保, 文紀1 Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Authors(alt): Kawakubo, Fuminori1
Issue Date: 29-Mar-2019
Publisher: 北海道大学スラブ・ユーラシア研究センター内 境界研究ユニット
Journal Title: 境界研究
Journal Title(alt): JAPAN BORDER REVIEW
Volume: 9
Start Page: 1
End Page: 16
Abstract: In North America, the terrorist attacks of September 11 had profound consequences on immigration and border management issues along the US-Canadian and US-Mexico borders. With the emergence of Homeland Security after September 11, the US, in conjunction with the governments of Canada and Mexico, has begun negotiations to explore the possibility of building Border Security Governance. This governance system is based upon “Transgovernmental Networks (TGNs),” which may have the potential to advance common border security strategies among the US, Canada, and Mexico. This movement leads to creating “a secure and smart border” which can filter out “potential” threats and risks while facilitating legitimate cross-border flows While bilateral cooperation continues along the vertical dimension through a traditional state based approach, cooperation among the three countries is increasingly organized horizontally in a more network-like fashion across regional borders. TGNs such as Border Enforcement Security Task Force (BEST) teams, Integrated Border Enforcement Teams (IBETs) and Cross-Border Maritime Law Enforcement Operations, also known as “Shiprider,” are representative of this tendency. However, historic asymmetries in border security policies have existed among the three countries for a long time. In addition, border security practices are being reconfigured at various levels by different actors. This is most evident in issues regarding the mobility of people. This issue is becoming more and more differentiated based upon the notion of “neoliberal citizenship” more penetrable for some, and impenetrable for others. In this regard, the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP), signed by the three countries in 2005, does not simply guarantee a “simple and smooth regional space,” but understands mobility rights in relation to the borders being reconfigured As a result of these multiple dynamics, the relationship between border security and the ability of people to move has been complicated and often contested. This article examines the complexity of North American border security governance, with particular reference to the changing post- NAFTA environments. I argue that this type of governance has clearly shifted from a state-centric to a more pluralistic model developed by the theories of new regionalism, which denies the prevailing business-elitist, non-cooperative ethos. This article also raises concerns about the prospects of North America in the face of non-business, civil society organizations which have been excluded from the process of regional integration. The references to “border stakeholder” in the SPP suggest greater involvement of civil society organizations as well as business enterprises in the process of policy implementation.
Type: bulletin (article)
Appears in Collections:境界研究 = Japan Border Review > No.9

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