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Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma : How Should We Improve the Thresholds?

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Title: Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma : How Should We Improve the Thresholds?
Authors: Shimamura, Tsuyoshi Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Goto, Ryoichi Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Watanabe, Masaaki Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Kawamura, Norio Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Takada, Yasutsugu Browse this author
Keywords: liver transplantation
hepatocellular carcinoma
selection criteria
allocation rule
Issue Date: 14-Jan-2022
Publisher: MDPI
Journal Title: Cancers
Volume: 14
Issue: 2
Start Page: 419
Publisher DOI: 10.3390/cancers14020419
Abstract: Simple Summary The ideal treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is liver transplantation (LT), which both eliminates the HCC and cures the diseased liver. Once considered an experimental treatment with dismal survival rates, LT for HCC entered a new era with the establishment of the Milan criteria over 20 years ago. However, over the last two decades, the Milan criteria, which are based on tumor morphology, have come under intense scrutiny and are now largely regarded as too restrictive, and limit the access of transplantation for many patients who would otherwise achieve good clinical outcomes. The liver transplant community has been making every effort to reach a goal of establishing more reliable selection criteria. This article addresses how the criteria have been extended, as well as the concept of pre-transplant down-staging to maximize the eligibility. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third highest cause of cancer-related mortality, and liver transplantation is the ideal treatment for this disease. The Milan criteria provided the opportunity for HCC patients to undergo LT with favorable outcomes and have been the international gold standard and benchmark. With the accumulation of data, however, the Milan criteria are not regarded as too restrictive. After the implementation of the Milan criteria, many extended criteria have been proposed, which increases the limitations regarding the morphological tumor burden, and incorporates the tumor's biological behavior using surrogate markers. The paradigm for the patient selection for LT appears to be shifting from morphologic criteria to a combination of biologic, histologic, and morphologic criteria, and to the establishment of a model for predicting post-transplant recurrence and outcomes. This review article aims to characterize the various patient selection criteria for LT, with reference to several surrogate markers for the biological behavior of HCC (e.g., AFP, PIVKA-II, NLR, 18F-FDG PET/CT, liquid biopsy), and the response to locoregional therapy. Furthermore, the allocation rules in each country and the present evidence on the role of down-staging large tumors are addressed.
Type: article
Appears in Collections:北海道大学病院 (Hokkaido University Hospital) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

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