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Mediating Factors Between Parental Socioeconomic Status and Small for Gestational Age in Infants : Results from the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health

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Title: Mediating Factors Between Parental Socioeconomic Status and Small for Gestational Age in Infants : Results from the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health
Authors: Tamura, Naomi Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Hanaoka, Tomoyuki Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Ito, Kumiko Browse this author
Araki, Atsuko Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Miyashita, Chihiro Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Ito, Sachiko Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Kobayashi, Sumitaka Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Ito, Yoichi Browse this author
Minakami, Hisanori Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Cho, Kazutoshi Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Endo, Toshiaki Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Baba, Tsuyoshi Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Sengoku, Kazuo Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Miyamoto, Toshinobu Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Ogasawara, Katsuhiko Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Kishi, Reiko Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Keywords: Birth cohort study
Parental tobacco smoking
Small for gestational age
Socioeconomic status
Structure equation modeling
Issue Date: Apr-2021
Publisher: Springer
Journal Title: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Volume: 25
Issue: 4
Start Page: 645
End Page: 655
Publisher DOI: 10.1007/s10995-020-03035-w
Abstract: Abstract Objectives Previous studies indicated a significant association between small for gestational age (SGA) in infants and their parents’ socioeconomic status (SES). Thus, this study aimed to examine if parental factors, such as maternal smoking, and the pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) could mediate the associations between parental SES and SGA. Methods The participants of this study were pregnant women who enrolled in an ongoing birth cohort study, the Hokkaido study, during the first trimester of their pregnancies. A total of 14,593 live singleton births were included in the statistical analysis, of which 1011 (6.9%) were SGA. Two structural equation models were employed to evaluate the associations between parental SES, parental characteristics, and SGA. Results The effect of low SES on SGA was directly mediated by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking during the third trimester, and alcohol consumption during the first trimester in the first model, which was based the assumption of independent associations between mediating factors. In the second model, which additionally considered the mediating factors from the first model, smoking during pregnancy mediated decline in parental SES, consequently increased SGA. Moreover, an increase in pregnancy smoking status increased the prevalence of lower maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and its effect on SGA. Conclusions for Practice In this study, we observed the independent mediating effect of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy on low SES and, consequently, SGA, with the additional mediating pathway of SES to smoking to low BMI on SGA.
Rights: This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Maternal and Child Health Journal. The final authenticated version is available online at:
Type: article (author version)
Appears in Collections:環境健康科学研究教育センター (Center for Environmental and Health Sciences) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 田村 菜穂美

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