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Diel and monthly activity pattern of brown bears and sika deer in the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan

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Title: Diel and monthly activity pattern of brown bears and sika deer in the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan
Authors: Kawamura, Kei Browse this author
Jimbo, Mina Browse this author
Adachi, Keisuke Browse this author
Shirane, Yuri Browse this author
Nakanishi, Masanao Browse this author
Umemura, Yoshihiro Browse this author
Ishinazaka, Tsuyoshi Browse this author
Uno, Hiroyuki Browse this author
Sashika, Mariko Browse this author
Tsubota, Toshio Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Shimozuru, Michito Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Keywords: activity pattern
brown bear
diel rhythm
sika deer
Issue Date: 19-Aug-2022
Publisher: 公益社団法人 日本獣医学会 (The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science)
Journal Title: Journal of veterinary medical science
Volume: 84
Issue: 8
Start Page: 1146
End Page: 1156
Publisher DOI: 10.1292/jvms.21-0665
Abstract: Mammals exhibit several types of diel activity pattern, including nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular, and cathemeral. These patterns vary inter-and intra-specifically and are affected by environmental factors, individual status, and interactions with other individuals or species. Determining the factors that shape diel activity patterns is challenging but essential for understanding the behavioral ecology of animal species, and for wildlife conservation and management. Using camera-trap surveys, we investigated the species distributions and activity patterns of terrestrial mammals on the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan, with particular focus on brown bears and sika deer. From June to October 2019, a total of 7,530 observations were recorded by 65 camera-traps for eight species, including two alien species. The diel activity pattern of brown bears was diurnal/ crepuscular, similar to that of bears in North America, but different from European populations. Bear observations were more frequent during the autumnal hyperphagia period, and adult females and sub-adults were more diurnal than adult males. In addition, bears inside the protected area were more diurnal than those outside it. These findings suggest that appetite motivation, competitive interactions between conspecifics, and human activities potentially affect bear activity patterns. Similar to other sika deer populations and other deer species, the diel activity patterns of sika deer were crepuscular. Deer showed less variation in activity patterns among months and sex-age classes, while adult males were observed more frequently during the autumn copulation period, suggesting that reproductive motivation affects their activity patterns.
Type: article
Appears in Collections:獣医学院・獣医学研究院 (Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine / Faculty of Veterinary Medicine) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

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