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Combined exposure to phthalate esters and phosphate flame retardants and plasticizers and their associations with wheeze and allergy symptoms among school children

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Title: Combined exposure to phthalate esters and phosphate flame retardants and plasticizers and their associations with wheeze and allergy symptoms among school children
Authors: Araki, Atsuko Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Ait Bamai, Yu Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Bastiaensen, Michiel Browse this author
Van den Eede, Nele Browse this author
Kawai, Toshio Browse this author
Tsuboi, Tazuru Browse this author
Miyashita, Chihiro Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Itoh, Sachiko Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Goudarzi, Houman Browse this author
Konno, Satoshi Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Covaci, Adrian Browse this author
Kishi, Reiko Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Keywords: Phosphate flame retardant and plasticizers
Phthalate ester
Exposure to mixtures
Combined exposure
Issue Date: Apr-2020
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal Title: Environmental Research
Volume: 183
Start Page: 109212
Publisher DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109212
Abstract: Background: Phthalate esters and phosphate flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) are both used as plasticizers and are commonly detected in indoor environments. Although both phthalates and PFRs are known to be associated with children's wheeze and allergic symptoms, there have been no previous studies examining the effects of mixtures of these exposures. Objectives: To investigate the association between exposure to mixtures of phthalate esters and PFRs, and wheeze and allergic symptoms among school-aged children. Methods: A total of 128 elementary school-aged children were enrolled. Metabolites of 3 phthalate esters and 7 PFRs were measured in urine samples. Parent-reported symptoms of wheeze, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema were evaluated using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. In the primary model, we created a phthalate ester and PFR mixture exposure index, and estimated odds ratios (ORs) using weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression and quantile g (qg)-computation. The two highest chemicals according to qg-computation weight %s were combined to create a combination high × high exposure estimate, with ORs calculated using the “low × low” exposure group as the reference category. Concentrations of each metabolite were corrected by multiplying this value by the sex- and body size-Standardised creatinine concentration and dividing by the observed creatinine value. All models were adjusted for sex, grade, dampness index and annual house income. Results: The odds ratio of rhinoconjunctivitis for the association between exposure to chemical mixtures according to the WQS index positive models was; OR = 2.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-5.14). However, wheeze and eczema of the WQS index positive model, none of the WQS index negative models or qg-computation result yielded statistically significant results. Combined exposure to the two highest WQS weight %s of “high-high” ΣTCIPP and ΣTPHP was associated with an increased prevalence of rhino-conjunctivitis, OR = 5.78 (1.81–18.43) to the “low × low” group. Conclusions: Significant associations of mixed exposures to phthalates and PFRs and increased prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis was found among elementary school-aged children in the WQS positive model. Mixed exposures were not associated with any of allergic symptoms in the WQS negative model or qg-computation approach. However, the combined effects of exposure to two PFRs suggested an additive and/or multiplicative interaction, potentially increasing the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. A further study with a larger sample size is needed to confirm these results.
Rights: © 2020 This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Type: article (author version)
Appears in Collections:環境健康科学研究教育センター (Center for Environmental and Health Sciences) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 荒木 敦子

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