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Minimum wiping pressure and number of wipes that can remove dirt during bed baths using disposable towels : a multi-study approach

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Title: Minimum wiping pressure and number of wipes that can remove dirt during bed baths using disposable towels : a multi-study approach
Authors: Konya, Issei Browse this author
Nishiya, Kotone Browse this author
Shishido, Inaho Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Hino, Marie Browse this author
Watanabe, Kazuhiro Browse this author
Yano, Rika Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Keywords: Baths
Bed baths
Cross-sectional studies
Disposable wipes
Nursing care
Quasi-experimental studies
Skin care
Issue Date: 16-Jan-2023
Publisher: BioMed Central
Journal Title: BMC Nursing
Volume: 22
Issue: 1
Start Page: 18
Publisher DOI: 10.1186/s12912-022-01162-z
PMID: 36647109
Abstract: BackgroundFriction irritation by wiping increases the risk of skin problems. In bed baths with cotton towels, wiping three times with weak pressure (10-20 mmHg approximate to 1333-2666 Pa) can remove dirt while maintaining skin barrier function. However, few studies have examined the appropriate frictional irritation with disposable towels. This study aimed to analyse the wiping pressure and number of wipes currently applied by nurses when using disposable towels during bed baths and propose the minimum values for removing dirt from the skin.MethodsThis multi-study approach consisted of cross-sectional and crossover design components. In Study 1, 101 nurses in two hospitals were observed by recording the wiping pressure and number of wipes when using both disposable (nonwoven) and cotton (woven) towels. Wiping pressure and number of wipes by towel materials were analysed using a linear mixed model. In Study 2, 50 adults received oily and aqueous dirt on their forearms, which were wiped six-times with disposable towels, applying randomly assigned pressure categories. We used colour image analysis and a linear mixed model to estimate the dirt removal rate for each combination of wiping pressure and number of wipes.ResultsStudy 1 showed that although wiping pressure did not differ by towel material, the number of wipes was significantly higher for disposable wipes than cotton wipes. Approximately 5% of nurses applied strong wiping pressure or wiped too often. In Study 2, wiping three times with disposable towels at least 5-10 mmHg achieved dirt removal rates of >= 80%.ConclusionsSome nurses excessively wiped using disposable towels, which might cause skin problems. However, excessive wiping is not required to adequately remove dirt, regardless of the towel material used in various clinical situations. We recommend wiping at 10-20 mmHg of pressure (just like stroking gently) at least three times to improve the quality of bed baths. These findings highlight the need to develop skin-friendly bed bath educational programmes, particularly using appropriate frictional irritation to reduce the risk of skin problems.
Type: article
Appears in Collections:保健科学院・保健科学研究院 (Graduate School of Health Sciences / Faculty of Health Sciences) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

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