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Surveillance and Phylogenetic Characterisation of Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Waterfowl in Zambia in 2015, 2020, and 2021

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Title: Surveillance and Phylogenetic Characterisation of Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Waterfowl in Zambia in 2015, 2020, and 2021
Authors: Kalonda, Annie Browse this author
Saasa, Ngonda Browse this author
Kajihara, Masahiro Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Nao, Naganori Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Moonga, Ladislav Browse this author
Ndebe, Joseph Browse this author
Mori-Kajihara, Akina Browse this author
Mukubesa, Andrew Nalishuwa Browse this author
Samutela, Mulemba Browse this author
Munjita, Samuel Browse this author
Sakoda, Yoshihiro Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Sawa, Hirofumi Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Takada, Ayato Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Simulundu, Edgar Browse this author
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2023
Publisher: Wiley-Hindawi
Journal Title: Transboundary and emerging diseases
Volume: 2023
Start Page: 4606850
Publisher DOI: 10.1155/2023/4606850
Abstract: In recent years, the southern African region has experienced repeated incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), with wild migratory birds being implicated in the spread. To understand the profile of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulating in Zambia, we surveyed wild waterfowl for AIVs and phylogenetically characterised the isolates detected in 2015, 2020, and 2021. A total of 2,851 faecal samples of wild waterfowl were collected from Lochinvar National Park in the Southern Province of Zambia. During the study period, 85 (3.0%) low pathogenicity AIVs belonging to various subtypes were isolated, with H2N9, H8N4, and H10N8 being reported for the first time in avian species in Africa. The majority of the isolates were detected from glossy ibis (order Pelecaniformes) making it the first report of AIV from these birds in Zambia. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight gene segments of the 30 full genomes obtained in this study revealed that all the isolates belonged to the Eurasian lineage with their closest relatives being viruses isolated from wild and/or domestic birds in Bangladesh, Belgium, Egypt, Georgia, Mongolia, the Netherlands, and South Africa. Additionally, the Zambian viruses were grouped into distinct clusters based on the year of isolation. While no notifiable AIVs of the H5 or H7 subtypes were detected in wild birds in Zambia, viral internal protein genes of some viruses were closely related to H7 low pathogenicity AIVs. This study shows that periodically, a considerable diversity of AIV subtypes are introduced into the Zambian ecosystem by wild migratory waterfowl. The findings highlight the importance of continuous surveillance and monitoring of AIVs in wild waterfowl, including birds traditionally not considered to be major AIV reservoirs, for a better understanding of the eco-epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of AIVs in Africa.
Type: article
Appears in Collections:人獣共通感染症国際共同研究所 (International Institute for Zoonosis Control) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

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