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Title: 14世紀のストリゴーリニキ「異端」と正統教会
Other Titles: The Heresy of "Strigol'niki" and the Russian Orthodox Church in the Fourteenth Century
Authors: 宮野, 裕1 Browse this author
Authors(alt): Miyano, Yutaka1
Issue Date: 1999
Publisher: 北海道大学スラブ研究センター
Journal Title: スラヴ研究
Journal Title(alt): Slavic Studies
Volume: 46
Start Page: 57
End Page: 89
Abstract: Although a large number of studies have been conducted on the heresy of "Strigol'niki" in the Russian church, there is little agreement as to its history and creeds. The purpose of this paper is to consider the history and beliefs of the "Strigol'niki" and the Russian Orthodox church's attitudes toward them. First of all, a movement against corrupt priests of the Orthodox church had been continuing from about the eighties of the thirteenth century in Russia. What were criticized in the movement were their overeating, overdrinking, ignorance and bribery! This movement had grown over the whole area of Russia in the reign of lvan Kalita (1325-1341) and had necessarily risen also in Novgorod. In Novgorod, the number of men in this movement increased especially in the time of the Archbishop Vasilii (1331-1352), but they were not recognized as heresy, They protested against the corruption of priests, especially simony When Vasilii died in 1352, Moisei (1352-1359) became archbishop. He suspected them of heresy, and they were severely persecuted, but offlcially they were not condemned as heresy In 1359, when the new archbishop, Aleksei, (1359-1389) was elected, he took the same measures against the heresy. In 1375, Ieaders of the heresy, Karp, Nikita, and another were punished with death, but the heresy survived. In those days, they were not officially announced as heresy! Since Archbishop of Novgorod had not had rights to announce those who acted against the Orthodox church as heresy, Aleksei requested the Patriarch Nilos, of Constantinople, to write an epistles to Novgorod. In 1382, Nilos announced them as heresy; excommunicated them and sent archbishop of Suzdal' to Novgorod with his letter in which he ordered the heresy to return to the Orthodox church. But his order did not effect a change. In the year 1386, bishop of Perm', Stefan, was invited to Novgorod by Aleksei to confute the heresy. He watched actions of the heretics and described them. For example, he reported that the heretics repented to the Earth, and refused the practices of the Orthodox church (Holy Communion and prayer for dead). But the heresy, in fact, did not refuse the practices of the Orthodox church. They had attacked the demoralization of priests and only refused the rituals which were held by the decadent priests. Especially criticizing priests' simony, feeling them dirty; the heretics called "Strigol'niki" denied a right to priests of the Orthodox church to administer sacrament. So the heretics received Holy Communion without the attending of priests, and repented not to priests, but to the Earth. Since gifts for the dead became income of priests of the Orthodox church, the heretics also refused them. But conversely Stefan of Perm' considered that sacrament had received from Christ to Apostles, from Apostles to patriarchs, metropolitans, bishops and priests. Seeing the heresy's actions, Stefan of Perm', who was different from Nilos of Constantinople, punished them. In old Russia, punishment for heresy had not taken at first. For example, Heretics Dmitry and Adrian had not received punishment because they repented. Until the repent, only they had been shut up in a monastery. On the contrary, punishment by Stefan was very severe. He suppressed them, for example, he exiled them from Novgorod. So the heresy returned to the Orthodox church or ran away from Novgorod. Now, we shall also pay attention to a foreign circumstance of Novgorod. After the battle on Klikovo(1380), Dmitry Donskoi(1359-1389) of Moscow aimed punishment at Novgorod because this republic had not taken part on Moscow side in the battle. And in 1385, Novgorod resolved that this republic should withdraw from administration of the metropolitan of Moscow. So, Grand Prince Dmitry attacked Novgorod and burned many churches and monasteries around the city in 1386. Then Novgorodians got indignant against Moscow. In this circumstance, Archbishop Aleksei could not ask for help to the metropolitan of Moscow in the problerns of "Strigol'niki". So he directly requested help from the patriarch of Constantinople and the archbishop of Suzdal'. Since this plan was ineffective, he invited the bishop of Perm', who had made his fame in Christianization of Perm', rebutting the heresy. This measure was effective and the heresy disappeared from Novgorod. The metropolitan of Moscow could not interface this problem because in those days the metropolis of Moscow had been confused by the election of the new metropolitan. In the year of 1389, when new Metropolitan Kiprian (1389-1407) was elected, the Grand Prince of Moscow, Dmitry died. So, Novgorod barely escaped attack by the Grand Prince or metropolitan of Moscow. Facing these problems, the Orthodox-heresy relations were shaped in the Russian church. Before 1382, the Orthodox church, in principle, Iocked heretics in monasteries until they reformed themselves, but since 1386, the church expelled them from Novgorod. When a heretic was caught by the church, he already became an object of punishment.
Type: bulletin (article)
Appears in Collections:スラヴ研究 = Slavic Studies > 46

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