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中東鉄道とダーリニー(大連)港の勃興 : 1898-1904年

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タイトル: 中東鉄道とダーリニー(大連)港の勃興 : 1898-1904年
その他のタイトル: The Chinese Eastern Railway and the Rise of Port Dal'nii (Dalian) : 1898-1904
著者: 麻田, 雅文 著作を一覧する
発行日: 2008年
出版者: 北海道大学スラブ研究センター
誌名: スラヴ研究 = Slavic Studies
巻: 55
開始ページ: 183
終了ページ: 218
抄録: It is common knowledge that the northeastern Chinese port of Dalian was constructed by the Russian Empire between the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. However, previous studies in Russia and Japan only focused on the plan of the city. Hence, answers to questions such as why this port was constructed and what kind of trade was conducted under Russian rule (1898-1904) are still unclear. Although many researchers reported, without finding statistical evidence, that Dalian's trade had limited success under Russian rule, their opinions are subject to debate. The purpose of this paper is to examine the trade in Dalian under Russian rule from the statistics sourced from the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER), and analyze the economical conformation changes in the Russian Far East, which was caused by the rise of Port Dalian. The first question to be discussed pertains to the reason for the construction of Port Dalian. The process began when the Trans-Siberian Railway committee wanted an ice-free port as the gateway to the Pacific Ocean. However, there were no such ports in the Russian Far East. Therefore, the committee decided to construct a commercial port in Vladivostok in 1896. After the decision, Germany occupied Jiaozhou Bay in December 1897, and following this, Russia occupied Port Arthur on the Liaodong Peninsula for the Russian Pacific Fleet. However, Great Britain wanted to maintain the doctrine of free trade in China. So, the British Prime Minister Salisbury intervened in the Russo-Chinese negotiations and requested Russia to open a free port in the leased area. Besides, Russian Navy and Army officers did not want joint use of commercial ships in Port Arthur. Therefore, after the area was successfully leased, the Russian government instructed the CER to open a commercial port in Dalian Bay. This port is today known as Port Dalian (Dal'nii). In short, Dalian was built by the external pressure of Great Britain and the internal pressure of the Russian government. The Russian Finance Minister S. Iu. Witte, who is the planner of Dalian and who formulated the CER's business strategy, particularly emphasized a connection between railway and marine transport. He believed that the CER should control the trinity system of railways, steamships, and ports. This plan was modeled on the relationship between the Canadian Pacific Railway and Port Vancouver. This port thrived on the export of timber. In Port Dalian, the actively traded goods were Chinese tea and agricultural crops from Manchuria. A total of 1,921,666 poods (1 pood = 16.4 kg) of tea were imported to Port Dalian in 1903. This number was half the amount of tea imported to the Russian Empire in the same year. In addition, 954,000 poods of agricultural crops from Manchuria were transported by the CER to Dalian station in 1903. This is the largest number after Yingkou across all stations of the CER. The cargo volume of the port increased from 4,322,115 to 17,980,033 poods between 1902 and 1903. The port grew steadily and developed into a terminal station of the CER. However, Dalian was not the only port that was connected with the southern branch of the CER. As a result, Port Dalian encountered stiff competition from Port Arthur and Port Yingkou. For example, Port Arthur opened to commercial ships in February 1900. In 1903, the cargo volume in Port Arthur station was half of that in Dalian station in 1903. However, half of the cargo in the Dalian station comprised of tea. On the other hand, Port Arthur dominated in basic goods such as sugar, alcohol, and fabric. In addition, Yingkou was still the main port in South Manchuria. The cargo volume in Yingkou station was 4,664,000 poods. This number was greater than that in Dalian station by approximately 770,000 poods in 1903. In Port Yingkou, the actively traded goods comprised of agricultural crops grown in Manchuria, particularly wheat and soy. Thus, in the manner outlined above, two ports strongly rivaled Dalian. Many analysts stated that Dalian served no purpose, dubbing port "Lishnii," which means "unnecessary" in Russian. Meanwhile, The rise of Port Dalian posed a threat to the Russian Far East as the trade route for tea changed and the free port system moved from the Russian Far East to Kvantunskaia Oblast (The Kwantung Leased Territory), by the prior policy for Dalian. The route from Mongolia via Kyakhta was one of the most profitable routes for importing tea for the Russian Empire. However, after the rise of Port Dalian, the transaction value of Kyakhta's tea trade was reduced to half. Moreover, Vladivostok experienced a serious recession. Until 1900, this port had been protected and had gained prosperity by virtue of the free port system. After Dalian was recognized as the only free port in the Russian Pacific coast, the imports in Port Vladivostok diminished, resulting in a price boom for many materials in the city. When Witte, the planner of Dalian, visited Vladivostok in 1902, the Exchange Committee of the city appealed to him to improve the region's plight. However, Witte only advised the Emperor that Dalian and Vladivostok should divide the commercial market. At the same time, the rise of Port Dalian also had an effect on the Amur region. In August 1903, the 4th Congress of Khabarovsk was held, and it emphasized the region's economic problem. A representative of the CER attended the Congress and held discussions with the local merchants; however, both sides could not arrive at a consensus because of differences in opinion. Dalian was placed under Witte's administration during the conflict with Great Britain and the unfolding of domestic power games in Russia. Moreover, an abrupt change occurred in the economic policy of the Russian Far East by the preferable policy of Dalian. Therefore, at the time, Dalian became unpopular internationally, nationally, and locally. However, it would be incorrect to opine that Dalian's trade completely failed under Russian rule. In 1903, Dalian's trade reached unprecedented heights through the imports of Chinese tea and agricultural crops from Manchuria. These accomplishments were realized by the cooperation within the trinity system of the railways, steamships, and ports, and by the application of the free port system. It is clearly important to consider the fact that such Russian achievements were the result of imperialism. The point I wish to emphasize is that we should thoroughly investigate all aspects before discussing the actual significance of the rise of Port Dalian; this is because the rise of Port Dalian leaves room for a variety of interpretations.
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