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Local variation of inundation, sedimentary characteristics, and mineral assemblages of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami on the Misawa coast, Aomori, Japan

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Title: Local variation of inundation, sedimentary characteristics, and mineral assemblages of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami on the Misawa coast, Aomori, Japan
Authors: Nakamura, Yugo Browse this author
Nishimura, Yuichi Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Putra, Purna Sulastya Browse this author
Keywords: 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami deposit
Grain size
Mineral composition
Run-up height
Transportation modes
Issue Date: 30-Dec-2012
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Journal Title: Sedimentary Geology
Volume: 282
Start Page: 216
End Page: 227
Publisher DOI: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2012.06.003
Abstract: The 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami caused severe damage to the coastal regions of eastern Japan and left a sediment veneer over affected areas. We discuss differences in depositional characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami from the viewpoint of the sediment source, coastal topography and flow height. The study area on the Misawa coast, northern Tohoku, includes a 20 km long coastline with sandy beaches, coastal dunes and a gently sloping lowland. This landscape assemblage provides an opportunity to examine the effects of topography on the characteristics of the tsunami deposit. During field surveys conducted from April 10 to May 2, 2011, we described the thickness, facies, and structure of the tsunami deposit. We also collected sand samples at approximately 20 m intervals along 13 shore-perpendicular transects extending up to 550 m inland, for grain size and mineral assemblage analysis. The tsunami flow height was estimated by measuring the elevation of debris found in trees, broken tree limbs, or water marks on buildings. The nature of the coastal lowland affected the flow height and inundation distance. In the southern part of the study area, where there is a narrow, 100 m wide low-lying coastal strip, the run-up height reached 10 m on the landward terrace slopes. To the north, the maximum inundation reached 550 m with a run-up height of 32 m on the wider, low-lying coastal topography. The average flow height was 4-5 m. The tsunami eroded coastal dunes and formed small scarps along the coast. Immediately landward of the coastal dunes the tsunami deposit was more than 20 cm thick, but thinned markedly inland from this point. Close to the dunes the deposit was composed largely of medium sand (1-2 Φ) with planar and parallel bedding, but with no apparent upward fining or coarsening. The particle size was similar to that of the coastal dune and we infer that the dunes were the local source material for the tsunami deposit at this point. The mineral assemblage of the tsunami deposit was dominated by orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene and was also similar to the dune and beach sand. At sites more than half the inundation distance inland, the thinner tsunami deposit consisted mainly of fine sand (2.375 Φ) with some upward fining. The difference in particle size and sedimentary characteristics was probably caused by differences in sediment transportation and depositional processes. We infer that the well-sorted, finer sediments were deposited out of suspension, whereas the relatively coarse sands were laid down from traction flows. The depositional characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami deposit appeared to have been affected mainly by the coastal topography and the extent of erosion at any one point, as opposed to flow height.
Type: article (author version)
Appears in Collections:理学院・理学研究院 (Graduate School of Science / Faculty of Science) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 中村 有吾

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