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高齢者歯科学臨床実習における問題発見解決型学習に準じた少人数グループ学習の試み : 学生の主観的評価からみた学習効果

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Title: 高齢者歯科学臨床実習における問題発見解決型学習に準じた少人数グループ学習の試み : 学生の主観的評価からみた学習効果
Other Titles: A Trial of Small-Group Problem-Based Learning as Clinical Training in Gerodontology : Learning Effects Assessed by the Students
Authors: 岡田, 和隆 Browse this author →KAKEN DB
松下, 貴惠 Browse this author
濱田, 浩美 Browse this author
柏﨑, 晴彦 Browse this author
小林, 國彦 Browse this author →KAKEN DB
山崎, 裕 Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Keywords: clinical training
problem-based learning
small group learning
Issue Date: Mar-2015
Publisher: 北海道歯学会
Journal Title: 北海道歯学雑誌
Volume: 35
Issue: 2
Start Page: 141
End Page: 149
Abstract: 当教室が担当する高齢者歯科学臨床実習は2011年までは,受動的学習が主であった.しかし,教育効果向上のために2012年度からは能動的学習へと転換し,実習全体を少人数のグループ学習を中心にした実習とした.本研究は学生による知識の自己評価と実習に関するアンケート調査から,本実習システムにおける教育効果の評価を目的とした.  平成24~26年度に本実習を受講した本学部5~6年次学生96名(男性59名,女性37名)を対象とした.担当教員は実習開始時に実際の症例から作成した課題シナリオを与え,学生を3~4名の少人数グループに分け,シナリオの問題点を抽出・列挙し,各問題点の関連性と知識の整理を行った.その後,学生は高齢者に関わるさまざまな学習内容を踏まえ,シナリオの問題を解決するための方策について自己学習やグループ内ディスカッションを行い,まとめとしてプレゼンテーションを行った.実習開始時と終了時に高齢者の歯科医療,医療全般,保健,福祉に関する58項目からなる知識の自己評価を実施し,また実習終了時には実習内容,担当教員,予習・復習の実施状況など15項目のアンケート調査を行った(83名).なお,知識の自己評価は回答に不備のない80名(男性50名,女性30名)について,対応のあるt検定を行った.  知識の自己評価に関して,ほぼすべての項目において実習後に有意にスコアが上昇していた.アンケート調査に関して,実習内容や担当教員に関する項目で良好な結果が得られた.予習や復習の実施状況はほぼ半数の学生で良好であった.多くの学生は高齢者歯科に関心を持つことができ,本実習は総合的に学生に満足を与えるものであったと思われた.したがって本研究の結果から,本実習システムは良好な教育効果をもたらすと推測された.
Clinical training for Gerodontology in our department has been mainly learned in a passive manner until 2011. In 2012, we introduced an active learning method described as problem-based learning (PBL) in small groups which allows the students to discover clinical problems in elderly patients and their solutions. The aim of this study was to assess the educational effects on students who participated in PBL clinical training by the self-assessment of their knowledge and a questionnaire survey of the training. The subjects comprised 96 students (59 men and 37 women) in their fifth- and sixth-year of dentistry at Hokkaido University from 2012 to 2014. They were divided into groups of 3 or 4 members to discuss a real clinical case scenario. They presented possible clinical problems of the scenario logically and exposed them to constructive criticism leading to solutions. During this exercise they learned a wide range of problems that elderly patients may experience. Afterwards the students discussed and presented solutions. At the beginning and end of the training, the students assessed their knowledge of 58 items including dental treatment for the elderly, medicine, health care, and public aid. Furthermore, at the end they answered a questionnaire of 15 items about the contents of the training, tutoring, their preparation, and reviewing of the course. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test on the self-assessments of knowledge collected from 80 students (50 men and 30 women) who completed every item. According to the self-assessment of knowledge, almost all scores at the end of the training were significantly higher at the end than at the beginning. According to the questionnaire survey, the clinical training and tutoring was satisfactory for the students, and approximately half of them prepared and reviewed the class materials well. Thus, a number of the students were interested in Gerodontology and satisfied with this comprehensive clinical training. We conclude that clinical training by a PBL method in small-groups was considered to be an effective strategy.
Type: article
Appears in Collections:北海道歯学雑誌 = Hokkaido Journal of Dental Science > 第35巻 第2号

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