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第12号 >

屯田兵と西南戦争 : 屯田兵の戦没者慰霊と遺族扶助

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Title: 屯田兵と西南戦争 : 屯田兵の戦没者慰霊と遺族扶助
Other Titles: Commemoration of the dead "tondenhei" during the Seinan War
Authors: 相庭, 達也1 Browse this author
Authors(alt): AINIWA, Tatsuya1
Issue Date: 25-Mar-2019
Publisher: 北海道大学大学院文学研究科北方研究教育センター
Journal Title: 北方人文研究
Journal Title(alt): Journal of the Center for Northen Humanities
Volume: 12
Start Page: 1
End Page: 17
Abstract: 本稿は、西南戦争へ従軍し、出征から帰道までの期間に「戦闘」「病気」「事故」で亡くなった屯田兵の慰霊について、その実態と特性について考察したものである。  その数は37名に及ぶが、戦闘死とされる者8名の内3名は「溺死」であった。病死とされる者は28名で、ほとんどが「コレラ」によるものであった。出征当日に同郷出身の兵士によって殺害された者が1名いたが、それを開拓使は「横死」と位置づけた。  それぞれの「慰霊」について、当時病死者は合祀対象ではなかった東京招魂社に対して、開拓使は溺死者を戦闘死とし、病死者を合祀対象にとする意向があった。一方現地(札幌)に「屯田兵招魂碑」の建立を計画し、その碑文には横死者1名を含めた37名全員の戦没者を記した。それが札幌護国神社の特性を生むことになった。  上記の慰霊に対する開拓使の意向は、陸軍とは異なる屯田兵の特殊性によるものであった。そして、その最も重要なポイントは、屯田兵は1兵士であると同時に「戸主」であった点にある。したがって、屯田兵士の死は戸主の死であり、屯田兵が一方で担う北海道開拓に大きな支障を来すものであったのである。  戦没した屯田兵士の慰霊とは、その名誉を顕彰することだけでなく、遺族への保護といった観点が含まれており、緒についたばかりの北海道開拓を確実に進めるためのものであったのである。
In this article I have a look at the actual condition and characteristics of the memorial of Tondenhei, the soldiers for developing and guarding Hokkaido, who died in battle, illness, and accident during the period from the departure to the Seinan War until the return to Hokkaido after the war ending. The number of Tondenhei who were recognized as the people killed in the war reaches 37 people, but 3 out of 8 people who were recorded as the dead in the war actually were drowned. There were 28 soldiers who were reported to die from a disease, and most of them died due to cholera.There was a Tonden soldier who publicly was recorded as an unexpected death by Hokkaido Development Commission, but the fact was that he was murdered by a soldier from his hometown on the just day when he would go to war. While at that time, Tokyo Invitation Company didn't enshrined people who died from the disease in a war, Hokkaido Development Commission intended to console the spirits of the Tondenhei who died in the war by treating drowned Tondenhei as the death in battle and those who died from the disease as people who should be enshrined together. On the other hand, in the spot, Sapporo, the Tondenhei memorial monument was built, and in the epigraph on the monument, the names of the war dead of all 37 people including an unexpected death got written That brought the characteristics of Sapporo Gokoku-jinja shrine. The intention of Hokkaido Development Commission for the above memorial came from the special natures of Tondenhei different from the Japanese Army. And the most important nature of them is that a tonden soldier was a householder as well as a soldier. Therefore, the death of a tonden soldier meant the death of a householder, which was a serious problem to the important role that they would play in the development of Hokkaido as well as as a tonden soldier. The memorial of Tondenhei who were killed in the war had to be held not only from the point of view of the public recognition of its honor but also from the point of view of the protection for the surviving families, and just that was needed in order to certainly move on the development of Hokkaido that had just started.
Type: bulletin (article)
Appears in Collections:北方人文研究 = Journal of the Center for Northern Humanities > 第12号

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