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Monte-Carlo and multi-exposure assessment for the derivation of criteria for disinfection byproducts and volatile organic compounds in drinking water: Allocation factors and liter-equivalents per day

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Title: Monte-Carlo and multi-exposure assessment for the derivation of criteria for disinfection byproducts and volatile organic compounds in drinking water: Allocation factors and liter-equivalents per day
Authors: Akiyama, Megumi Browse this author
Matsui, Yoshihiko Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Kido, Junki Browse this author
Matsushita, Taku Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Shirasaki, Nobutaka Browse this author
Keywords: Water quality standard
THM
HAA
TCE
PCE
Issue Date: Jun-2018
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal Title: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Volume: 95
Start Page: 161
End Page: 174
Publisher DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.03.009
Abstract: The probability distributions of total potential doses of disinfection byproducts and volatile organic compounds via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure were estimated with Monte Carlo simulations, after conducting physiologically based pharmacokinetic model simulations to takes into account the differences in availability between the three exposures. If the criterion that the 95th percentile estimate equals the TDI (tolerable daily intake) is regarded as protecting the majority of a population, the drinking water criteria would be 140 (trichloromethane), 66 (bromodichloromethane), 157 (dibromochloromethane), 203 (tribromomethane), 140 (dichloroacetic acid), 78 (trichloroacetic acid), 6.55 (trichloroethylene, TCE), and 22 μg/L (perchloroethylene). The TCE criterion was lower than the Japanese Drinking Water Quality Standard (10 μg/L). The latter would allow the intake of 20% of the population to exceed the TDI. Indirect inhalation via evaporation from water, especially in bathrooms, was the major route of exposure to compounds other than haloacetic acids (HAAs) and accounted for 1.2–9 liter-equivalents/day for the median-exposure subpopulation. The ingestion of food was a major indirect route of exposure to HAAs. Contributions of direct water intake were not very different for trihalomethanes (30–45% of TDIs) and HAAs (45–52% of TDIs).
Rights: © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Type: article (author version)
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2115/74525
Appears in Collections:工学院・工学研究院 (Graduate School of Engineering / Faculty of Engineering) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 松井 佳彦

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