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Title: アイヌ語における「完了」表現があらわす証拠性
Other Titles: The “Perfect” Aspect and the Evidentiality in Ainu
Authors: 吉川, 佳見1 Browse this author
Authors(alt): Yoshikawa, Yoshimi1
Keywords: アイヌ語
Issue Date: 20-Mar-2020
Publisher: 日本北方言語学会
Journal Title: 北方言語研究
Journal Title(alt): Northern Language Studies
Volume: 10
Start Page: 203
End Page: 218
Abstract: アイヌ語は文法的テンスを持たず、アスペクト形式の使用も義務的ではない。その中で助動詞a(以下a)は、過去・完了(perfect)の標識として説明されてきた。これについて筆者は吉川(2015)で、過去・完了を表さない場合にもaが使われることを指摘していたが、それがaのどのような機能によるものなのかは検討すべき課題となっていた。本稿ではまず、aが従来説明されてきたperfectではなく、perfectiveを示す性質があることを主張したうえで、アスペクチュアルな意味から離れた例外的 な用例を証拠性(evidentiality)の観点から捉え、aは直接証拠性を標示しうる形式であると提案する。また同時に、吉川(2018)を挙げ、助動詞aan(以下aan)が間接証拠性を標示しうることを述べたうえで、aおよびaanの機能の定義を試みる。 扱うアイヌ語の資料は、沙流方言、千歳方言のものとするが、先行研究はこれに限らない。用例の下線、傍点は筆者による。一部、日本語・アイヌ語表記を現在一般的に使用される表記に改変したところがある。和訳は原典のものを引用した。なお、a,aanはそれぞれrok,rokokaの形をとることがある2が、本稿 ではa,aanの形で代表させる。
In the Ainu language, which has no grammatical tense, and where the use of aspect form is not obligatory, the auxiliary verb ahas been described as a marker of past tense or perfect aspect (Kindaichi (1993[1931]), Chiri(1974[1936],1973[1942]), Tamura(1960,1988a), Sato(2006,2007,2008)). On this issue, Yoshikawa (2015) previously pointed out that the auxiliary verb ais also used in cases where it does not represent the past tense nor the perfect aspect, suggesting that it may refer to the nature of aparticular person, or to the speaker's knowledge. However, it remained to be seen what the precise function of the auxiliary verb awas that led to such expressions. In this article, I first make a claim that the aspectual function of the auxiliary verb ais perfective, not perfect. Then I proceed to the second claim that the auxiliary verb acan indicate direct evidentiality, and that the exceptional usage mentioned above of the auxiliary verb acould be explained by its evidential function. I further argue that, with reference to Yoshikawa (2018), it is not the auxiliary verb abut the auxiliary verb aanthat represents the perfect aspect, and also that the auxiliary verb aancan indicate indirect evidentiality. It is in this respect that I attempt to redefine the functions of those auxiliary verbs aand aan. The auxiliary verb amay appear in the end of a sentence with other elements such as a final particle or a connective particle, or it may be a component modification component. In the latter case, I suggest that the aspectual meaning has priority over the evidential meaning.
Type: bulletin (article)
Appears in Collections:北方言語研究 = Northern Language Studies > 第10号

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