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満洲語文語の従属節対格主語の照応機能について

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Title: 満洲語文語の従属節対格主語の照応機能について
Other Titles: The Anaphoric Function of the Accusative Subject in Subordinate Clauses of Written Manchu
Authors: 山﨑, 雅人1 Browse this author
Authors(alt): Yamazaki, Masato1
Keywords: 満洲語文語
従属節対格主語
PDQJJL節
照応
「定」
「特定」
Issue Date: 20-Mar-2020
Publisher: 日本北方言語学会
Journal Title: 北方言語研究
Journal Title(alt): Northern Language Studies
Volume: 10
Start Page: 157
End Page: 169
Abstract: 早田(2011:9)は、満洲語文語1のmanggi《~後》で終わる節の従属節対格主語の機能に関して、蒙古語文語について述べた小沢(1997:41)を引いて、「従属節の対格主語は,主節の主格主語(や不定格主語)とは別のものを指す。これこそが対格主語の中心的機能に他ならないと思われる。」と述べている。対格主語はmanggi節以外の従属節にも現れうるが、本稿は早田(2011)と同じく、manggi節内の対格主語を考察対象とする。そして、 この形式には、上記の見解に加えて、先行もしくは後続の文脈と照応する機能があることを主張する。それにより、発話者は当該名詞が「定」または「特定」の情報という 意味を伝えることができると考える。この主張を実証するために、まず早田(2011)が挙げるmanggi節の例を検討する2。さらに二つの清代満文資料と共に1989年の現代錫伯文資料3にも 範囲を広げ、この構文に関する上の主張を検証する。本稿は、山﨑(2018)及び山﨑(2019)において、属格主語を持つ従属節の述部がその前後の文脈に関連する表現を持つことを論じたものに続いて、同様の現象をmanggi節内の 対格主語の場合において分析する。
Hayata(2011)demonstrates that there are eleven examples of accusative subjects in the clause ending with manggi“after” in the Written Manchu literature of the early Qing dynasty, and concludes that the subordinate accusative subject has an agent which is different from the subject in the main clause. The present paper argues that accusative subjects in a clause ending with manggi have the function of anaphorain contexts where entities considered to be in an anaphoric relationship arereferred to in context before orafter sentences with the accusative subject. This is illustrated not only inthe examples in Hayata (2011) but also those ofthree Written Manchu novels, including“The Tale of Monkey‘Sibe Translation’”(『西遊記(錫伯文)』)published in 1989. In the following example, the word simbe, which is the second person singular accusative pronoun, works as a subject of the verb jihe(‘come’intheperfect) in the manggi-clause. 〇si jabduci, ere biyai orin -i onggolo gene, jabdurakū oci, orin de juranu, simbe(acc.) bedereme jihe manggi, gebu buki sehe;“He said‘if you are in time for departure, depart before the20th, but if not, depart on the20th. After you return, I would like to give you a name.’”The entity in an anaphoric relationship designated by the second person pronoun stands as the nominative subject si in the previous context. The following example is a conversation between the speaker and his mother, who promised to tell the speaker about his missing father when he grows up. 〇si hahardaha erin be aliyafi, jai sinde alakini, ... emu inenggi eniyei baru hendume, seibeni mimbe(acc.)etuhun amba oho manggi, mini ama -i bisire babe alambi sembihe, te ombidere,“‘ I'll wait for a time when you grow up and I will let you know.’ ... One day, he said to his mother,‘Previously you said to me,‘After you grow up to be strong and tall, I will let you know where your dad is’, didn't you? Now I have grown up, haven't I?’” The word mimbeis the first person singular accusative pronoun and this is the subject of the verb oho(‘become’ in the perfect)in the manggi-clause. The first sentence refers to the speaker as the second person singular nominative pronoun si‘you’from his interlocutor's point of view. It is obvious that there is an anaphoric correlation between the two pronouns, which mean the same person.
Type: bulletin (article)
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2115/77600
Appears in Collections:北方言語研究 = Northern Language Studies > 第10号

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