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Assessment of indirect inhalation exposure to formaldehyde evaporated from water

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Title: Assessment of indirect inhalation exposure to formaldehyde evaporated from water
Authors: Nishikawa, Shunto Browse this author
Matsui, Yoshihiko Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Matsushita, Taku Browse this author
Shirasaki, Nobutaka Browse this author
Keywords: Water quality standard
Partition coefficient
Shower
Volatility
Distribution
Chloroform
Issue Date: Aug-2019
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal Title: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Volume: 106
Start Page: 43
End Page: 49
Publisher DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2019.04.019
Abstract: Volatilization volumes and health risks associated with indirect inhalation exposure to formaldehyde evaporated from water have not been investigated quantitatively. We experimentally investigated formaldehyde volatility, compared with chloroform volatility, predicted formaldehyde inhalation exposure concentrations in Japanese bathrooms, and then re-evaluated drinking water quality standards. Although the Henry's law constant of formaldehyde is 1/104 that of chloroform, with a 30-min exposure period, the formaldehyde non-equilibrium partition coefficient (K’d) was 1/500th the chloroform value because of formaldehyde's faster volatilization rate. We used this ratio to estimate the cumulative probability distribution of formaldehyde concentrations in bathroom air. For a formaldehyde concentration in water of ≤2.6 mg/L-water (WHO tolerable concentration), the probability that the incremental formaldehyde concentration due to volatilization would exceed 100 μg/m3-air (WHO indoor air quality guideline) was low. However, major sources of formaldehyde in indoor air are building materials and furniture. We therefore calculated the allowable concentration in water by allocating a small percentage of the indoor air guideline value to indirect inhalation exposure via volatilization from tap water. With an allocation factor of 20% (10%), the allowable concentration was 0.52 (0.26) mg/L-water. These concentrations are similar to the Health Canada guideline concentration but they are 3 to 6 times the Japanese water quality standard.
Rights: ©2019. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Type: article (author version)
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2115/78997
Appears in Collections:工学院・工学研究院 (Graduate School of Engineering / Faculty of Engineering) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 松井 佳彦

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