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3-D Tomography of the Ionospheric Anomalies Immediately Before and After the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (M(w)9.0) Earthquake

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Title: 3-D Tomography of the Ionospheric Anomalies Immediately Before and After the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (M(w)9.0) Earthquake
Authors: Muafiry, Ihsan Naufal Browse this author
Heki, Kosuke Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Keywords: GNSS-TEC
ionospheric anomalies
3-D tomography
Issue Date: Oct-2020
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Journal Title: Journal of geophysical research. Space physics
Volume: 125
Issue: 10
Start Page: e2020JA027993
Publisher DOI: 10.1029/2020JA027993
Abstract: A dense network of ground global navigation satellite system receivers detected ionospheric total electron content (TEC) changes starting similar to 40 min before the 2011 Tohoku-oki (M(w)9.0) earthquake around the ruptured fault, together with the long-lasting postseismic TEC drop. In this paper, we robustly estimate three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of both preseismic and postseismic ionospheric anomalies of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake by tomographic inversions of electron density anomalies. We set up >6,000 blocks, as large as 1.0 degrees (east-west) x 0.9 degrees (north-south) x 60 km (vertical), over the Japanese Islands, the Sea of Japan, and the Korean Peninsula, up to 870 km altitude. By using TEC anomalies of pairs exceeding similar to 1,300 stations and eight satellites obtained using reference curves, we estimated electron density anomalies within individual blocks. The results showed that the preseismic and postseismic anomalies do not overlap in space. The preseismic anomalies are composed of low (similar to 300 km height) positive and high (similar to 600 km height) negative anomalies. They occurred above the land of NE Japan without extending offshore, suggesting its origin related to surface electric charges. On the other hand, the postseismic electron depletion occurred offshore above the region where large coseismic uplift took place. These results demonstrate that the preseismic and postseismic ionospheric anomalies are independent not only temporarily but also spatially and certainly in underlying physical mechanisms. We propose a simple model to explain how surface charges redistribute ionospheric electrons to make the observed preseismic electron density anomalies. Plain Language Summary A dense network of GNSS/GPS receivers found that redistribution of ionospheric electrons started similar to 40 min before the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake around the fault. It was also found that a long-lasting electron depletion occurred after the earthquake. We studied the three-dimensional structures of the electron density anomalies immediately before and after the 2011 earthquake. We found that the preseismic anomaly occurred above land, but the postseismic anomaly occurred offshore. The preseismic change is characterized by the simultaneous growth of positive and negative electron density anomalies, while the postseismic change is dominated by an electron decrease. These differences reflect the different physical origins of the preseismic and postseismic anomalies.
Rights: Copyright 2020 American Geophysical Union.
Type: article
Appears in Collections:理学院・理学研究院 (Graduate School of Science / Faculty of Science) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 日置 幸介

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