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Evaluating Long-Term Performance of a Residential Ground-Source Heat Pump System under Climate Change in Cold and Warm Cities of Japan

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Title: Evaluating Long-Term Performance of a Residential Ground-Source Heat Pump System under Climate Change in Cold and Warm Cities of Japan
Authors: Sakata, Yoshitaka Browse this author
Akeyama, Yuma Browse this author
Katsura, Takao Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Nagano, Katsunori Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Keywords: ground-source heat pump
climate change
soil temperature
seasonal performance factor
simple payback time
Issue Date: 15-Mar-2023
Publisher: MDPI
Journal Title: Energies
Volume: 16
Issue: 6
Start Page: 2742
Publisher DOI: 10.3390/en16062742
Abstract: A residential ground-source heat pump system often requires a long payback time to recover the capital cost. Long-term uncertainty in such a system's performance increases as the climate changes. This study compares 20-years hourly heating/cooling demands of a typical residence in the present (2000-2020) and in the future (2076-2095) for two locations in Japan. This study also calculated soil temperatures as heat sources through 1D heat-transfer simulation based on the A1B climate scenario in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report. System performance and simple payback times were compared in one cold and one warm city in Japan (Sapporo and Tokyo, respectively). Soil temperatures at a middle depth of a borehole heat exchanger were predicted to increase in the future by similar to 1 degrees C, with insignificant effects on a borehole heat exchanger. Seasonal performance factors increased in Sapporo because thermal demands would be kept even in the future, but decreased in Tokyo, which has a higher ratio of the energy used in operating the system in cooling mode compared with its small heating demand. The simple payback time was estimated at 16.2 and >20 years in Sapporo and Tokyo, respectively, both in the present and future, with the constant energy prices. If oil and gas prices doubled, the payback time would be halved in Sapporo to 8.4 years but remain around 20 years or more in Tokyo.
Rights: © [2023] by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (
Type: article
Appears in Collections:工学院・工学研究院 (Graduate School of Engineering / Faculty of Engineering) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

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