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音波探査で海底を見る : 海底地形に記録された地球環境変動

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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://doi.org/10.14943/lowtemsci.76.269

Title: 音波探査で海底を見る : 海底地形に記録された地球環境変動
Other Titles: Acoustic mapping of the seafloor features : Implication for global environmental change
Authors: 藤井, 昌和1 Browse this author
野木, 義史2 Browse this author
Authors(alt): Fujii, Masakazu1
Nogi, Yoshifumi2
Keywords: 海底地形
音響測深
氷河地形
海底マグマ活動
地球環境変動
Seafloor bathymetry
Acoustic ranging
Submarine glacial landform
Submarine volcanism
Global environmental change
Issue Date: 31-Mar-2018
Publisher: 低温科学第76巻編集委員会
Journal Title: 低温科学
Journal Title(alt): Low Temperature Science
Volume: 76
Start Page: 269
End Page: 284
Abstract: 海洋底は地球表面の7割を占めるが,観測の難しさゆえにまだ探査されていない領域が大半である.海底には分裂する超大陸や拡大する海洋底のダイナミクスの真相が隠れていることに加え,氷河に削られた記録や海底のマグマ活動の痕跡といった地球環境変動に関わる記録も残されている.本稿では,海底探査技術の中でも特に欠かせない音響測深技術について概観し,海底地形観測の発展の歴史をレビューする.また,今後の展開が期待される無人水中探査技術については,海氷・棚氷下において高分解能海底地形を観測した例を紹介する.さらに,南極大陸をとり囲む中央海嶺のマグマ活動や海底熱水循環の重要性に触れ,地球環境との関連について今後の探査展望を述べる.
The seafloor covers more than 70 percent of the solid-earth surface, however most parts have not been explored because of observation difficulty. Significant records of paleo glacial erosion and submarine volcanism as well as continental breakup and seafloor spreading are preserved in the seafloor. Here, we review the progressive development of the acoustic ranging for understanding the Earth seafloor bathymetry and its application examples in the polar oceans. In addition, we mention the importance of high-resolution acoustic mapping under sea ice and ice shelf, by introducing the Antarctic studies, which utilized unmanned underwater vehicles. Finally, we take notice of the circum-Antarctic mid-ocean ridges, where submarine volcanism releases much heat and materials through magma eruption and hydrothermal circulation, and discuss future exploration plans for revealing their linkage to global environmental change.
Type: bulletin (article)
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2115/70340
Appears in Collections:低温科学 = Low Temperature Science > 第76巻

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