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Ultrastructure and Systematics of Two New Species of Dinoflagellate, Paragymnodinium Asymmetricum sp. nov. and Paragymnodinium Inerme sp. nov. (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae)(1)

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Title: Ultrastructure and Systematics of Two New Species of Dinoflagellate, Paragymnodinium Asymmetricum sp. nov. and Paragymnodinium Inerme sp. nov. (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae)(1)
Authors: Yokouchi, Koh Browse this author
Takahashi, Kazuya Browse this author
Nguyen, Van Nguyen Browse this author
Iwataki, Mitsunori Browse this author
Horiguchi, Takeo Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Keywords: chloroplast
flagellar apparatus
Gymnodinium sensu stricto
nutritional mode
Issue Date: Jun-2020
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Journal Title: Journal of phycology
Volume: 56
Issue: 3
Start Page: 730
End Page: 746
Publisher DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12981
Abstract: The genus Paragymnodinium currently includes two species, P. shiwhaense and P. stigmaticum, that are characterized by mixotrophic nutrition and the possession of nematocysts. In this study, two new dinoflagellates belonging to this genus were described based on observations using LM, SEM, and TEM together with a molecular analysis. Cells of P. asymmetricum sp. nov., isolated from Nha Trang Beach, Vietnam, were 7.9-12.6 mu m long and 4.7-9.0 mu m wide. The species showed no evidence of feeding behavior and was able to sustain itself phototrophically. Paragymnodinium asymmetricum shared many features with P. shiwhaense, including presence of nematocysts, absence of an eyespot, and a planktonic lifestyle, but was clearly distinguished by the asymmetric shape of the hyposome, possession of a single chloroplast, and its nutritional mode. Cells of P. inerme sp. nov., isolated from Jogashima, Kanagawa Pref, Japan, were 15.3-23.7 mu m long and 10.9-19.6 mu m wide. This species also showed no evidence of feeding behavior. Paragymnodinium inerme was similar to cells of P. shiwhaense in shape and planktonic lifestyle, but its nutritional mode was different. The presence of incomplete nematocysts was also a unique feature. A phylogenetic analysis inferred from concatenated SSU and LSU rDNA sequences recovered the two dinoflagellates in a robust clade with Paragymnodinium spp., within the clade of Gymnodinium sensu stricto. This evidence, together with their morphological similarities, made it reasonable to conclude that these two dinoflagellates are new species of Paragymnodinium.
Rights: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Journal of Phycology 56(3) June 2020, pp.730-746 which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.
Type: article (author version)
Appears in Collections:理学院・理学研究院 (Graduate School of Science / Faculty of Science) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 堀口 健雄

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