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Basic concepts and unique features of human circadian rhythms : implications for human health

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Title: Basic concepts and unique features of human circadian rhythms : implications for human health
Authors: Yamanaka, Yujiro Browse this author →KAKEN DB
Keywords: Bright light
Circadian rhythms
Glucose metabolism
Issue Date: 26-Nov-2020
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Journal Title: Nutrition Reviews
Volume: 78
Issue: Supplement_3
Start Page: 91
End Page: 96
Publisher DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuaa072
PMID: 33259616
Abstract: Most physiological functions and behaviors exhibit a robust approximately 24-hour rhythmicity (circadian rhythm) in the real world. These rhythms persist under constant conditions, but the period is slightly longer than 24 hours, suggesting that circadian rhythms are endogenously driven by an internal, self-sustained oscillator. In mammals, including humans, the central circadian pacemaker is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. The primary zeitgeber for this pacemaker is bright sunlight, but nonphotic time cues also affect circadian rhythms. The human circadian system uniquely exhibits spontaneous internal desynchronization between the sleep-wake cycle and core body temperature rhythm under constant conditions and partial entrainment of the sleep-wake cycle in response to nonphotic time cues. Experimental and clinical studies of human circadian rhythms must take into account these unique features. This review covers the basic concepts and unique features of the human circadian system, the mechanisms underlying phase adjustment of the circadian rhythms by light and nonphotic time cues (eg, physical exercise), and the effects of eating behavior (eg, chewing frequency) on the circadian rhythm of glucose metabolism.
Description: Figure legendsの番号訂正: Figure 2→Figure 3、Figure 3→Figure 4
Figure legendsの追補: Figure 2 Light phase-response curve. A light phase-response curve produced by a single 3-hour pulse of bright light (∼5000 lx). Subjects were housed in an isolation facility under free-running conditions. The phase-advance portion coincides with late subjective night and early subjective morning. The phase-delay portion coincides with early subjective night, and the middle of the subjective day is a dead-zone when bright light does not produce a significant phase shift (dead-zone). Reproduced from Honma and Honma (1988)16 and Minors et al (1991),17 with permission.
Rights: This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in Nutrition Reviews following peer review. The version of record [Yujiro Yamanaka, Basic concepts and unique features of human circadian rhythms: implications for human health, Nutrition Reviews, Volume 78, Issue Supplement_3, December 2020, Pages 91–96] is available online at:
Type: article (author version)
Appears in Collections:教育学院・教育学研究院 (Graduate School of Education / Faculty of Education) > 雑誌発表論文等 (Peer-reviewed Journal Articles, etc)

Submitter: 山仲 勇二郎

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