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Prioritizing Economic Development for Increasing Dietary Diversity
|Title: ||Prioritizing Economic Development for Increasing Dietary Diversity|
|Other Titles: ||十分な栄養摂取を行うための優先的な経済発展|
|Authors: ||Iziga, Jude Ikemefuna Browse this author|
|Issue Date: ||23-Mar-2023|
|Publisher: ||Hokkaido University|
|Abstract: ||The article in chapter one explains how food production diversity mitigates dietary diversity against shocks-induced income variations. We construct survey-panel dataset, separate 2,336 households by their credit status, and estimate a switching regression model. Increasing vulnerability of Nigeria`s farm households to food security risks motivates this study. As Nigeria relies majorly on oil and gas rents for revenues, global shocks generate macroeconomic fluctuations. This complicates policymaker`s attempts to boost food production using agricultural transformative reforms. Households try to diversify crop production to sustain quality nutrition, but they are constrained by credit to do so. We find that credit-unconstrained households diversified food production, but credit-constrained households could not. However, diversifying crop production shows a slight mitigation to nutritional quality. Therefore, income growth remains highly important for increasing dietary diversity.
The second article, which is reported in chapter two, investigates similarities in effects of infrastructure on economic development of 130 countries over 25 years. An autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model is used to extract the extent of disparities in wages, income, and nutrition originating from skilled labor and infrastructure complementarity. We identify latent country groups based on unknown group structure in panel ARDL models. We find that infrastructure has group-heterogeneity of effects on economic development across countries. Most African countries fell into groups that do not reap infrastructure and skilled labor complimentary advantages for economic growth. However, infrastructure has narrow economic growth prospects in Africa because of limited industrialization. Education of labor might be more viable for Africa`s sustainable development.
The article in chapter three examines the effect of education of workers on economic growth of 102 countries over 15 years. I estimate the econometric model of the supply of and demand for educated services with macro production technologies. The results indicate a significant positive causality between educated services and economic performance. Investing in education shows optimum at three to six years of schooling where enterprise-needed skills are taught. Most developed countries maximize growth because they have workers with ideal education and skills needed by companies. This maximum growth generates employment for unemployed workers with the enterprise-required skills. Africa`s workers show inadequate education compared with labor in advanced nations. Poor education account for the low income in Africa and effort to suggest a remedial measure led to my fourth research project as discussed in chapter four.
The chapter provides a guide on education and allocation of labor to minimize unemployment and poverty. It utilizes panel data set generated from Nigeria’s general household survey (GHS) panel. A simultaneous equation model wherein equations of demand for and supply of educated labor endogenize investment in education is formulated. Slope heterogeneity of relationship between educated labor and income growth is considered. The results show that completing tertiary education is enough for educated labor to secure jobs and maximize wages through contributions to total output.
The analysis so far indicates that own saving and money transfers do not provide substantial consumption insurance against macroeconomic shocks. This information coupled with those in the previous summaries establish a conclusion that, “Economic development should be prioritized to ensure increasing dietary diversity of households.” This concluding empirical fact, which remains relevant to most African countries, corresponds my doctoral dissertation theme. The economic development’s importance for increasing dietary diversity is evaluated as an extended chapter to this dissertation?the chapter five.
The evaluation shows that food items and food groups consumed out of those available but unattainable by households is infinitesimal. This indicates a low economic development in Africa. Therefore, African countries should, “Prioritize economic development for increasing dietary diversity of their populace."|
|Conffering University: ||北海道大学|
|Degree Report Number: ||甲第15429号|
|Degree Level: ||博士|
|Degree Discipline: ||経済学|
|Examination Committee Members: ||(主査) 教授 齋藤 久光, 准教授 相澤 俊明, 教授 高木 真吾|
|Degree Affiliation: ||経済学院（現代経済経営専攻）|
|Type: ||theses (doctoral)|
|Appears in Collections:||課程博士 (Doctorate by way of Advanced Course) > 経済学院(Graduate School of Economics and Business)|
学位論文 (Theses) > 博士 （経済学）